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Psy 120 Human Development Womb to tomb Jan Thompson-Wilda

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1 Psy 120 Human Development Womb to tomb Jan Thompson-Wilda
Cannot get credit for 120 and 211 at OCC Fast paced to the very end Jan Thompson-Wilda 219, 22nd year at OCC Student Development Faculty

2 Psy 120 Human Development Chapter 1—The Study of Human Development

3 Formal Study of Human Development
The scientific study of how humans develop Main questions: How do people change throughout their lives? What characteristics remain stable?

4 Developmental Processes— Change and Stability
2 kinds of change Quantitative change— change in number or amount Qualitative change—change in kind, structure, or organization Despite change, there is also underlying stability

5 Basic Questions about Development
Which aspects of development are universal, and which vary from one individual or group to the next? are continuous, and which are not? are more or less fixed (like marble) and difficult to change, and which are relatively malleable and easy to change (like clay)? What makes development happen?

6 Guiding Principles Development results from constant interplay of biology and the environment. Development occurs in multilayered context. Development is a dynamic, reciprocal process. Development is cumulative. Development occurs throughout the life-span.

7 Domains of Development
Physical development Cognitive development Social and emotional development

8 Human Development Today—Goals of This Scientific Discipline
Description Explanation Prediction Modification

9 Periods of the Life Span
Social construction 8 periods generally agreed upon Individual differences exist, but there are particular needs and tasks that must be met at certain stages for normal development to occur

10 Research Methods and Designs
Theories Sets of statements that propose general principles of development Predictions or Hypotheses An educated guess that is testable by data collection and analysis Theories – sets of statements that propose general principles of development. Hypothesis – an educated guess that is testable by data collection.

11 Theories of Development
Classical Theories Psychoanalytic theory Freud’s theory of psychosexual development Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development Learning theory Behaviorism Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning theory Cognitive-Developmental theory

12 Psychoanalytic--development shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior
Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud: Psychosexual Development Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Development

13 Freud Development is shaped by unconscious forces that motivate behavior Id—pleasure principle Ego—reality principle Superego—conscience— shoulds, oughts Psychosexual development Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital

14 Erikson Psychosocial Development 8 stages
Competing tendencies in personality (crises) These issues must be resolved for healthy ego development Must balance positive and negative tendency at each stage

15 Learning—development results from experiences in the environment
Learning Perspective Behaviorism Social Learning Theory

16 Behaviorism—Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s experiments A natural response to a stimulus is transferred to a second stimulus

17 Behaviorism—Operant Conditioning
Individuals learn from operating on the environment

18 Classical Conditioning

19 Operant Conditioning jZZNGfIOM&feature=related Reinforcement—process by which a behavior is strengthened, increasing the likelihood it will be repeated Punishment—process by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood it will be repeated

20 Social Learning Theory
Not exactly, but cute. This is more like it. ZXOp5PopIA&feature=related Albert Bandura Modeling, or observational learning Model is usually someone powerful or admired, similar to you, when you see the model rewarded for the behavior you are observing

21 Cognitive-Developmental Theory
Emphasizes changes in thinking over the lifespan Piaget—stage theory Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational Organization—the tendency to create categories Schemes—people create these increasingly complex cognitive structures for organizing information Adaptation—Adjustment to new information from the environment Assimilation Accommodation Equilibration—constant striving for balance, equilibrium—shift from assimilation to accommodation

22 Theories of Development
Contemporary Theories Ecological perspective Sociocultural perspective Behavioral genetics Evolutionary perspective Dynamic systems theory

23 Ecological perspective

24 Bronfenbrenner’s 5 Interlocking Contextual Systems
Development occurs through increasingly complex processes of regular, active, two-way interaction between the developing person and the immediate environment The context—the ecological system—either supports or stifles growth

25 Sociocultural Perspective
Emphasizes the ways development involves adaptation to specific cultural demands

26 Behavioral Genetics Emphasizes the inherited bases of behavior
Reciprocol influences between genes and environment

27 Evolutionary Perspective
Emphasizes how behavior develops as a result of adaptation to environment

28 Dynamic Systems Perspective
Emphasizes that all facets of development, domains, context are part of a dynamic, constantly changing system

29 The Scientific Study of Development
The scientific method: A systematic, step-by-step procedure for testing ideas.

30 Research methods Observational research Self-reports
Naturalistic observation Participant observation Structured observation Self-reports Standardized tests Reliability Validity

31 Basic Research Designs
Case studies Correlational studies Experiments Groups and variables Random assignment Laboratory, field and natural experiments

32 Figure 1.3: Positive and Negative Correlations

33 • The Scientific Method
Studying change over time –Longitudinal research –Cross-sectional studies –Accelerated longitudinal design

34 Figure 1.4: Research Designs for Studies of Development

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