Presentation on theme: "Psy 120 Human Development Womb to tomb Jan Thompson-Wilda"— Presentation transcript:
1 Psy 120 Human Development Womb to tomb Jan Thompson-Wilda Cannot get credit for 120 and 211 at OCCFast paced to the very endJan Thompson-Wilda219,22nd year at OCCStudent Development Faculty
2 Psy 120 Human DevelopmentChapter 1—The Study of Human Development
3 Formal Study of Human Development The scientific study of how humans developMain questions:How do people change throughout their lives?What characteristics remain stable?
4 Developmental Processes— Change and Stability 2 kinds of changeQuantitative change— change in number or amountQualitative change—change in kind, structure, or organizationDespite change, there is also underlying stability
5 Basic Questions about Development Which aspects of developmentare universal, and which vary from one individual or group to the next?are continuous, and which are not?are more or less fixed (like marble) and difficult to change, and which are relatively malleable and easy to change (like clay)?What makes development happen?
6 Guiding PrinciplesDevelopment results from constant interplay of biology and the environment.Development occurs in multilayered context.Development is a dynamic, reciprocal process.Development is cumulative.Development occurs throughout the life-span.
7 Domains of Development Physical developmentCognitive developmentSocial and emotional development
8 Human Development Today—Goals of This Scientific Discipline DescriptionExplanationPredictionModification
9 Periods of the Life Span Social construction8 periods generally agreed uponIndividual differences exist, but there are particular needs and tasks that must be met at certain stages for normal development to occur
10 Research Methods and Designs TheoriesSets of statements that propose general principles of developmentPredictions or HypothesesAn educated guess that is testable by data collection and analysisTheories – sets of statements that propose general principles of development.Hypothesis – an educated guess that is testable by data collection.
11 Theories of Development Classical TheoriesPsychoanalytic theoryFreud’s theory of psychosexual developmentErikson’s theory of psychosocial developmentLearning theoryBehaviorismClassical conditioningOperant conditioningSocial learning theoryCognitive-Developmental theory
12 Psychoanalytic--development shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior Psychoanalytic PerspectiveSigmund Freud:Psychosexual DevelopmentErik Erikson:Psychosocial Development
13 FreudDevelopment is shaped by unconscious forces that motivate behaviorId—pleasure principleEgo—reality principleSuperego—conscience— shoulds, oughtsPsychosexual developmentOralAnalPhallicLatencyGenital
14 Erikson Psychosocial Development 8 stages Competing tendencies in personality(crises)These issues must be resolvedfor healthy ego developmentMust balance positive andnegative tendency at each stage
15 Learning—development results from experiences in the environment Learning PerspectiveBehaviorismSocial Learning Theory
16 Behaviorism—Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s experimentsA natural response to a stimulus is transferred to a second stimulus
17 Behaviorism—Operant Conditioning Individuals learn fromoperating on theenvironment
19 Operant ConditioningjZZNGfIOM&feature=relatedReinforcement—process by which a behavior is strengthened, increasing the likelihood it will be repeatedPunishment—process by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood it will be repeated
20 Social Learning Theory Not exactly, but cute.This is more like it.ZXOp5PopIA&feature=relatedAlbert BanduraModeling, or observational learningModel is usually someone powerful or admired, similar to you, when you see the model rewarded for the behavior you are observing
21 Cognitive-Developmental Theory Emphasizes changes in thinking over the lifespanPiaget—stage theorySensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete OperationalFormal OperationalOrganization—the tendency to create categoriesSchemes—people create these increasingly complex cognitive structures for organizing informationAdaptation—Adjustment to new information from the environmentAssimilationAccommodationEquilibration—constant striving for balance, equilibrium—shift from assimilation to accommodation
22 Theories of Development Contemporary TheoriesEcological perspectiveSociocultural perspectiveBehavioral geneticsEvolutionary perspectiveDynamic systems theory
24 Bronfenbrenner’s 5 Interlocking Contextual Systems Development occurs through increasingly complex processes of regular, active, two-way interaction between the developing person and the immediate environmentThe context—the ecological system—either supports or stifles growth
25 Sociocultural Perspective Emphasizes the ways development involves adaptation to specific cultural demands
26 Behavioral Genetics Emphasizes the inherited bases of behavior Reciprocol influences between genes and environment
27 Evolutionary Perspective Emphasizes how behavior develops as a result of adaptation to environment
28 Dynamic Systems Perspective Emphasizes that all facets of development, domains, context are part of a dynamic, constantly changing system
29 The Scientific Study of Development The scientific method: A systematic, step-by-step procedure for testing ideas.
30 Research methods Observational research Self-reports Naturalistic observationParticipant observationStructured observationSelf-reportsStandardized testsReliabilityValidity
31 Basic Research Designs Case studiesCorrelational studiesExperimentsGroups and variablesRandom assignmentLaboratory, field and natural experiments