Presentation on theme: "Chapter X DEFINITIONS OF INCOME (Conceptual issues, definitions in use and recommendations)"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter X DEFINITIONS OF INCOME (Conceptual issues, definitions in use and recommendations)
X.1 Income as factor rewards and as source of consumption spending X.2 Relationship between income and expenditure X.3 Individual versus Household Incomes X.4 Shadow Income and the non-observed economy X.5 Various income concepts and relationships between them – X.6 Subsidies, preferential tax treatment and income measurement X.7 Definitions in use, and recommendation
X.1Income as factor rewards and as source of consumption spending Most statistical for agriculture interpret income as the mix of reward to the fixed factors of production used in production (NVA, Entrepreneurial Income etc.) The Handbook is concerned with the total and disposable income of the households as institutional unit, available for consumption and saving/investment. As such, income includes more than profit from agricultural production
X.2Relationship between income and expenditure Disposable income is “.. the maximum amount that a household or other unit can afford to spend on consumption goods or services during the accounting period without having to finance its expenditure by reducing its cash, by disposing of other financial or non-financial assets or by increasing its liabilities.” (SNA93 para 8.15).
X.2SNA approach to disposable income Main items Income from self employment (agric+ other) Imputed rental value of owned dwellings Wages and salaries Income from property (rents, interest etc.) Social benefits Other current transfers Taxation and social contributions (-ve) Other current (-ve) transfers Social benefits in kind
X.3Individual versus Household Incomes Income measurement often on basis of individuals within the household Policies need to know how this income is shared in the household Intra-household transfers particularly significant in LDCs What determines household utility?
X.5Various income concepts and relationships between them X.5.1Extended and Full Incomes, X.5.2Lifetime income and permanent income hypothesis, X.5.3Incomes within accounting systems – total resources, total income, disposable income etc. X.5.4Importance of time (capital gains and income?)
X.6Subsidies, preferential tax treatment and income measurement X.6.1Concept of a subsidy X.6.2Subsidies within agricultural income measurement systems X.6.3Which other subsidies might be considered? X.6.4. Capital taxation on transfer of property
X.6Subsidies, preferential tax treatment and income measurement Key point – accounting systems and income indicators do not capture all subsidies that determine the ability of household to consume Example – way that farm real estate is treated in capital taxation
Recommendation The Handbook recommends the simplified definition of Disposable Income (as shown in following table) for application to income measurement of agricultural households
X.7 Definitions in use Eurostat’s IAHS statistics (close to SNA93 definition) Includes transfers between households sectors and other sectors, and between agricultural households and other household sub-sectors) Canberra Group recommendations Full specification and simplified definitions of disposable income Avoids most non-cash items (including imputed income from owned-dwellings) Not tailored to agricultural usage
Why not take Canberra as it stands? Income in kind may be particularly large in farming, and needs specific treatment (an amplification rather than an addition) Imputed value of Owner-dwellings is found to be significant in some countries, and a methodology for valuation is often present (an addition) Detailed tabulation enables compatibility to be achieved with Canberra
Net income from self-employment (money income and in kind) (agriculture / other ) Imputed rental value of owned dwellings Cash wages and salaries Rent received (net) (property, land) Other property income (interest + dividends) Social transfers received (cash) Other current inflows (regular) = Total Income Current taxes on income and wealth Non-discretionary social contributions = Net Disposable Income