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Lesson 1: Introduction to Ecology Lesson 2: Roles in Energy Transfer

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1 Lesson 1: Introduction to Ecology Lesson 2: Roles in Energy Transfer
Unit 1 Lesson 1 and 2 Lesson 1: Introduction to Ecology Lesson 2: Roles in Energy Transfer

2 The Web of Life Organisms need energy and matter to live.
When organisms interact with one another there is an exchange of energy and matter. All organisms are connected to each other and to the environment. Ecology – the study of how organisms interact with one another and with the environment.

3 The Web of Life Through the living environment.
Biotic factor – an interaction between organisms (living) in an area. Bio = life Through the nonliving environment. Abiotic factor – a nonliving part of an environment. A = non or not Examples: water, nutrients, soil, sunlight, rainfall, temperature, climate, rocks, air. Abiotic factors influence where organisms can survive.

4 Levels of Organization
The environment can be organized into different levels. Level 1 – an individual organism. Level 2 – Population – a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same place at the same time. Species – organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce offspring. Individuals within a population often compete for resources such as food, mates, shelter, etc.

5 Levels of Organization
Level 3 – Communities – make up all the populations of different species that live and interact in an area. There is also competition for resources among all species. Level 4 – Ecosystems – a community of organisms and their nonliving environment. Includes all biotic and abiotic factors. Examples: Pond, forest, swamp, etc.

6 Think Globally Biome – Contains many ecosystems. - Large regions that share climate conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, and have communities of species. - Major land biomes: tropical rainforest, grassland, desert, rain forest, tundra, savanna, taiga, etc.

7 Home Sweet Home Ecologists – a scientists who studies the different kinds of organisms and their role in the environment. Niche – a role a population of species play in an ecosystem. Example: how it gets food, how it interacts with other populations. Lion and gazelle.

8 Home Sweet Home Habitat - a place where an organism lives, a part of an organisms’ niche. Provide all the resources an organism needs to survive. 2 populations cannot occupy the same niche.

9 Unit 1: Lesson 2 Get Energized!
Energy is all around you! Energy from food is known as chemical energy. All living things need a source of chemical energy to survive. Producers convert energy into food! Producer – also known as an autotroph Producer/autotroph – use energy to make their own food. Use the process called photosynthesis. Sunlight energy + water + carbon dioxide = food + oxygen Examples include all green plants such as grasses and trees, plants, shrubs, etc.

10 Get Energized! Decomposers break down matter.
Decomposer – an organism that gets energy and nutrients by breaking down the remains of other organisms. They are nature’s recyclers; they help move matter through ecosystems. Examples include: fungi such as mushrooms and some bacteria.

11 Get Energized! Consumers eat other organisms.
Consumer – an organism that eats other organisms. They cannot make their own food. 4 types 1. Herbivore – Eats only plants. 2. Carnivore – Eats other animals. 3. Omnivore – Eats both plants and animals. 4. Scavenger – Eats dead organisms.


13 Energy Transfer Energy is transferred from one organism to another when it is eaten or decomposed. Food chain – the path of energy transfer from producers to consumers. The arrows represent the transfer of energy as one organism is eaten by another. Producers form the base of the food chain. Energy is then transferred to the primary consumer. Then to a secondary consumer. Then to a tertiary consumer. Lastly, decomposers recycle matter back to the soil

14 World Wide Webs Food web – the feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem. Made up of many food chains combined. At the top of each chain are the top predators, animals that eat other animals but are rarely eaten. Website recap Game

15 World Wide Webs All living organisms are connected by global food webs. Global food webs include webs that begin on land and webs that begin in the water. Because global food webs are connected, removing even one organism can affect many organisms in other ecosystems.

16 Dangerous Competition
Invasive species – are sometimes introduced into a new area. They often compete with native species for energy resources, such as sunlight and food. Kudzu plant – introduced to stop soil erosion but outgrew all native plants preventing them from getting sunlight. Zebra mussel – They eat by filtering tiny organisms out of the water, often leaving nothing for the native mussel species Walking catfish – moves across land to get from one pond to another competing with native species for food. Snakehead fish – native to Asia invaded FDR park in South Philly.

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