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Race at the Starting Gate: The Social and Economic Integration of the New Second Generation by Monica Boyd.

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Presentation on theme: "Race at the Starting Gate: The Social and Economic Integration of the New Second Generation by Monica Boyd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Race at the Starting Gate: The Social and Economic Integration of the New Second Generation by Monica Boyd

2 What is the second generation? Terminology FB, arrived as children = 1.5 generation CB, with FB parent (s) = 2nd generation CB, with CB parents = 3rd-plus generation

3 Why the Focus on the Second Generation? 1) Demographics Numbers, Proportions 2) Parental Difficulties 3) Historical Change

4 2001 Census: 13 % are foreign born arriving after age 12 21 % are the 1.5 or second generation 66% are third-plus generation 2006 Census: One in five Canadians (19%) are second generation

5 Why the Focus on Second Generation ? Long term integration of immigrants, over generations How are immigrants doing shifts to how are their children doing

6 New second generation from recent waves of migrants Three concerns: 1) Economy has changed 2) Parental generation is not doing well 3) Racial barriers

7 Canadian Exceptionalism: Do American/European Models Apply? Countries have their own unique histories of immigration, immigration policies, and race and ethnic relations Need to conduct research on immigrant offspring in Canada

8 Data gaps dampened research between 1971-1995 Censuses, 1971, 2001, 2006 Surveys: GSS 2001, 1996; SLID etc Focused Surveys: EDS, case studies Caveats: Cross-sectional comparisons; not descent groups

9 Immigrants to Canada are increasingly from Asia and the Middle East

10 A defining feature of new second generation is their visible minority status and their origins from non- European source countries, as compared to the largely European-based flows of the past

11 Generational Status varies for Visible Minority/ Non-Visible Minority Populations

12 Most immigrants and their offspring live in CMAs Visible minority immigrants and their offspring are most likely to live in CMAs

13 Most of the Visible minority population who are immigrant offspring are under age 30

14 How are the new immigrant offspring doing; how will they do? Answers from 2001 census. Asked persons age 15+ to indicate birthplace of parents First time since 1971 Study: age 20-29 in 2001; living in cities

15 Educational Attainments



18 % with University Degree Exceeding 3 rd + non-Vismin Yes No Arab & W. Asian L. Am Chinese Black S. Asian Filipino

19 Transition Stages All groups more likely than 3 rd plus non-Vismin generation to be: Attending school Working part time



22 Percentage Deviations of Logged Weekly Earnings, Unadjusted and Adjusted for Other, Variables, by Sex, Generation, Visible Minority Status, Age 20-29, Living in CMAs, and Working Two or more Weeks in 2000, Canada, 2001. WOMEN Not Visi ble Mino rity Arab & West Asia nBlackChineseFilipino Latin Am eri ca South Asi an South East Asia n Second(ns) -5.95.4(ns).... Third-plus(RG)....(ns)…..... MEN Second(ns) -8.7(ns)-5.8(ns).... Third-plus(RG)....(ns)....

23 Summary Considerable variation within Visible Minority population with respect to how second generation is doing Chinese, South Asian vs Latin American and Black

24 Caveats At the Starting Gate- quite literally Considerable variation within visible minority groups – pan-label conceals origin variations

25 Caveats Location matters City context important local labour markets

26 What factors help explain variations? Other studies Parental Characteristics Family Structure Language Competence Ethnic Communities, Identities Other Factors

27 CONCLUDING THOUGHTS Outcomes for new second generation optimistic for some, not for others Appropriate policies, programs of support?

28 School age School programs offering support; buddy mentoring programs Promote wide range of ethnic identities Community centered programs that increase support networks

29 Future research issues High poverty among immigrants Children in Schools School to Work Transitions Remove pan-VISMIN labels Look at second generation groups in same geographical space

30 The Future Immigrants viewed as resources; But their children also are; educational and economic success is important

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