Origins and Background Judaism originates from the ancient Hebrew people. “In the beginning” (2000-1750 BCE) 1 st writings between 1000-800 BCE. It’s the 1 st monotheistic religion in the world. The main laws and teachings of the religion come from the Torah (the 1 st 5 books of the Hebrew Bible) According to the Torah, Abraham (the father of the Hebrew people) was chosen by God (Yahweh) to move his family from Mesopotamia to Canaan. This was the beginning of the Hebrews.
Location and Holy Books Started Canaan (modern day Israel, Jordan, and Syria.) Today Israel and spread world wide Holy Books Torah, Mosaic Law, Talmud
Key Figures Abraham According to the Torah, the father of the Hebrew people was chosen by God (Yahweh) to move his family from Mesopotamia to Canaan. This was the beginning of the Hebrews. Moses According to the Torah Moses led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt sometime between 1300-1200BCE. (The Exodus). According to the Torah, after the Exodus Moses was given the Ten Commandment by God.
The 10 Commandments The 10 Commandments became the foundation for civil & religious law for Judaism. Observant Jews follow many strict laws and rituals that guide daily life and the ways they worship. Followers worship in a synagogue (place of worship).
Judaism Today Today about 14 million people (Jewish people) practice Judaism. Most of these Jewish people live in Israel & the United States. Judaism has influenced both Christianity & Islam.
Branches of Orthodox, Reform, Ashkenazim (German), Hasidic, Sephardim (Spain)
Important Information Known as “people of the Book” because they base their lives on the Bible. Torah is in the 1 st 5 books of the Bible. Follow the 613 commandments believed to have been given to Moses by God. No widespread hierarchical structure.
The great Diaspora The Holocaust Zionist movement (the return of the Jews to Jerusalem)
Christianity Origins 30 C.E. It actually began around 30 CE (Height of Roman Empire) with teachings of Jesus It gets its roots in Judaism taking many aspects of Judaism religious law and the many of the books of the Old Testament come from its Judaism back ground. The core of the New Testament of the Bible deals with the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, the person in which Christianity is based. (You could call him the founder of Christianity.)
Important Figures Mary (virgin mother) Holy trinity (father, son, and holy ghost) Jesus (Prophet ) Peter
Christianity Based On Christianity is based on the Gospels, life & teachings of Jesus, ancient Hebrew law, and the death of Jesus. These teachings can be found in the Christian text called the Bible (Old & New Testaments). The first 4 books are called the Gospels The Gospels are written by followers of Jesus and his teachings. Some were actually disciples of Jesus who later became known as Apostles.
Why was Christianity so appealing to so many people allowing it to spread quickly? It embraced all people (men, women, rich and poor)Open to all people Gave hope to the powerless. Appealed to those upset with the extravagances of Rome. Offered a personal relationship with God. Promised Eternal Life. Goal- Heaven
What they believe Christians are monotheistic. They believe Jesus was the Son of God and that he died on a cross so that men and women’s sins could be forgiven. Christianity is practiced by approximately 2 billion people from all parts of the world. Peter The first pope and one of the first apostles. Known as the rock on which the church was built
Branches Orthodox, Lutheran, Baptist, Methodist, Catholic, Episcopal, etc.