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HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Roots and Radical Notation nth Roots and Radical Notation Case 1: n is an even natural number. If a is a non-negative real number and n is an even natural number, is the non-negative real number b with the property that That is In this case, note that

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Roots and Radical Notation nth Roots and Radical Notation (cont.) Case 2: n is an odd natural number. If a is any real number and n is an odd natural number, is the real number b (whose sign will be the same as the sign of a) with the property that Again,

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Roots and Radical Notation Note: o When n is even, is defined only when a is non- negative. o When n is odd, is defined for all real numbers a. o We prevent any ambiguity in the meaning of when n is even and a is non-negative by defining to be the non-negative number whose nͭ ͪ power is a. Ex:

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Roots and Radical Notation Simplify the following radicals. a. b. c. d. is not a real number, as no real number raised to the fourth power is -81. Note: for any natural number n. because

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Roots and Radical Notation Simplify the following radicals. a. b. c. In general, if n is an even natural number, for any real number a. Remember, though, that if n is an odd natural number. because

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Simplifying Radical Expressions In the following properties, a and b may be taken to represent constant variable, or more complicated algebraic expressions. The letters n and m represent natural numbers. Property 1. 2. 3. Example

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Simplifying Radical Expressions Simplify the following radical expressions: a. b. Note that since the index is 3, we look for all of the perfect cubes in the radicand. if n is even.

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Simplifying Radical Expressions Caution! One common error is to rewrite These two equations are not equal! To convince yourself of this, observe the following inequality:

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Simplifying Radical Expressions Rationalizing Denominators Case 1: Denominator is a single term containing a root. If the denominator is a single term containing a factor of we will take advantage of the fact that and is a or |a|, depending on whether n is odd or even.

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Simplifying Radical Expressions Rationalizing Denominators Case 1: Denominator is a single term containing a root. (cont.) Of course, we cannot multiply the denominator by a factor of without multiplying the numerator by the same factor, as this would change the expression. So we must multiply the fraction by

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Simplifying Radical Expressions Rationalizing Denominators Case 2: Denominator consists of two terms, one or both of which are square roots. Let A + B represent the denominator of the fraction under consideration, where at least one of A and B is a square root term. We will take advantage of the fact that Note that the exponents of 2 in the end result negate the square root (or roots) initially in the denominator.

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Simplifying Radical Expressions Rationalizing Denominators Case 2: Denominator consists of two terms, one or both of which are square roots. (cont.) Once again, remember that we cannot multiply the denominator by A – B unless we multiply the numerator by this same factor. Thus, multiply the fraction by The factor A – B is called the conjugate radical expression of A + B.

HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Simplifying Radical Expressions Simplify the following radical expression: First, simplify the numerator and denominator. Since the index is three, we are looking for perfect cubes. Here, the perfect cubes are colored green. Next, determine what to multiply the denominator by in order to eliminate the radical. Since the index is three, we want 2 and y to have exponents of three. Remember to multiply the numerator by the same factor.