Presentation on theme: "Section 1: The Plant Kingdom"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 1: The Plant Kingdom What characteristics do all plants share?What do plants need to live successfully on land?How do nonvascular plants and vascular plants differ?What are the different stages of a plant’s life cycle?
2 What Is a Plant?Nearly all plants are autotrophs, organisms that produce their own food. All plants are eukaryotes that contain many cells. In addition, all plant cells are surrounded by cell walls.
3 Plant Body StructureThe body of a plant is organized into organ systems, organs, tissues, and cells.
4 Plant Body StructureThe body of a plant is organized into organ systems, organs, tissues, and cells.
5 Plant Body StructureThe body of a plant is organized into organ systems, organs, tissues, and cells.
6 Plant Body StructureThe body of a plant is organized into organ systems, organs, tissues, and cells.
7 Plant Body StructureThe body of a plant is organized into organ systems, organs, tissues, and cells.
8 Adaptations for Living on Land Plants lived in the oceans for millions of years before they slowly adapted to live on land.In order to successfully live on land, plants evolved these 5 adaptations:
9 Adaptations for Living on Land #1: Obtaining Water and NutrientsLand plants evolved roots to obtain water and nutrients from the soil.
10 Adaptations for Living on Land #2: Retain WaterCuticle (waxy, waterproof layer that covers most leaves) helps prevent water loss due to evaporation.
11 Adaptations for Living on Land #3: Transport MaterialsVascular tissue consists of tube-like structures that allow food, minerals, and water to move throughout the plant.
12 Adaptations for Living on Land #4: SupportCell walls supply adequate support and strength against gravity (and other things).
13 Adaptations for Living on Land #5: ReproductionPlants that lived on land needed a way to spread their sex cells without the help of water.
14 Classification of Plants Plants are categorized into 2 major groups:Vascular plantsNon-vascular plants
15 Classification of Plants Vascular PlantsContain vascular tissue.Are better suited to live on land.Can grow very tall.Can live in any non-arctic environment, even the desert.
16 Classification of Plants Non-vascular PlantsLacks vascular tissue.Found in extremely wet environments.Are only a few centimeters tall.Usually found growing low to the ground and in damp, shady places.
17 Complex Life CyclesPlants have complex life cycles that include two different stages: the sporophyte stage and the gametophyte stage.
19 Section 2: Plants Without Seeds What characteristics do the three groups of nonvascular plants share?What characteristics do the three groups of seedless vascular plants share?
20 Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns, club mosses, and horsetails share two characteristics. They have true vascular tissue and they do not produce seeds. Instead of seeds, these plants reproduce by releasing spores.
21 MossesA moss gametophyte is low- growing and has structures that look like roots, stems, and leaves. The stalklike sporophyte generation remains attached to the gametophyte.
22 FernsMost ferns have underground stems in addition to roots. The leaves, or fronds, grow above ground.
24 Section 3: The Characteristics of Seed Plants What characteristics do seed plants share?How do seeds become new plants?
25 What Is a Seed Plant?The stems of vascular plants contain bundles of phloem and xylem. In addition, thick cell walls and vascular tissue help support the plant.
26 How Seeds Become New Plants A seed has three main parts–an embryo, stored food, and a seed coat. If a seed lands in an area where conditions are favorable, the plant sprouts out of the seed and begins to grow.
27 End of Section: The Characteristics of Seed Plants
28 Section 4: Roots, Stems, and Leaves What are the main function of roots, stems, and leaves?
29 Root StructureA root’s structure is adapted for absorbing water and minerals from the soil.
30 StemsThe stem produces branches, leaves, and flowers. It carries substances between the plant’s roots and leaves, and provides support for the plant.
31 StemsTrees have woody stems. A typical woody stem is made up of many layers. The layers of xylem form annual rings that can reveal the age of the tree and the growing conditions it has experienced.
32 LeavesLeaves capture and use the sun’s energy to make food. The structure of a leaf is well-adapted for photosynthesis.
34 Section 5: Reproduction in Seed Plants What are the characteristics of gymnosperms and how do they reproduce?What are the characteristics of angiosperms?How do angiosperms reproduce?What are the two types of angiosperms?
35 Reproduction in Gymnosperms First, pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone. In time, a sperm cell and an egg cell join together in an ovule on the female cone. After fertilization occurs, the seed develops on the scale of the female cone.
36 The Structure of Flowers Flowers come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and colors. But, despite their differences, all flowers have the same function– reproduction.
37 Reproduction in Angiosperms First, pollen falls on a flower’s stigma. In time, the sperm cell and egg cell join together in the flower’s ovule. The zygote develops into the embryo part of the seed.
38 Types of AngiospermsAngiosperms are divided into two major groups: monocots and dicots.