Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Language and Communication. Chapter 9: Language and Communication Chapter 9 has four modules: Module 9.1 The Road to Speech Module 9.2 Learning."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9: Language and Communication Chapter 9 has four modules: Module 9.1 The Road to Speech Module 9.2 Learning the Meanings of Words Module 9.3 Speaking in Sentences Module 9.4 Using Language to Communicate
The Road to Speech Elements of Language Perceiving Speech First Steps to Speech
Module 9.1 The Road to Speech What are the basic sounds of speech, and how well can infants distinguish them? How does infant-directed speech help children learn about language? What is babbling, and how does it become more complex in older infants? Module 9.2 Learning the Meanings of Words Module 9.3 Speaking in Sentences
Elements of Language LanguagePhonologySemanticsGrammarSyntaxPragmatics Let’s take a minute to define each of these elements.
Perceiving Speech Young babies can hear phonemes, even those not in their language Infants can identify individual words Adults use infant-directed speech
First Steps to Speech 2 months: cooing 6 months: babbling 8 to 11 months: babbling includes intonation 1 year: first words appear
Learning the Meaning of Words Understanding Words as Symbols Fast Mapping Meanings to Words Individual Differences in Word Learning Encouraging Word Learning Beyond Words: Other Symbols
Module 9.1 The Road to Speech Module 9.2 Learning the Meanings of Words How do children make the transition from babbling to talking? What different styles of language learning do young children use? What rules do children follow to learn new words? What conditions foster children’s learning of new words? Module 9.3 Speaking in Sentences
Understanding Words as Symbols Infants understand that words are symbols Gestures are symbols that children start to use around the time they begin to talk
Fast Mapping Meanings to Words Fast mapping Word meanings Common naming errors
Individual Differences in Word Learning Causes Language environment and phonological memory Different styles of learning language: referential and expressive
Individual Differences in Word Learning Referential style: vocabularies consist mainly of words that name objects, persons, or actions Expressive style: vocabularies include many social phrases that are used as single words Can you give examples of how children use each style?
Encouraging Word Learning Speak frequently, but with not at children Name objects that are the focus of child’s attention Use speech that uses different words and is grammatically sophisticated Respond promptly to child Read books and ask children questions
Impact of Video Viewing statistics Infants: 1 hr. daily Preschoolers: 2+ hrs. daily Impact on work learning Dependent on content Influenced when adults view with children
True or False? Intellectually geared videos are not effective before the age of 18 months.
Beyond Words: Other Symbols Children learn other symbol systems as they grow, such as pictures and scale models 18 months: understand photos are representations of objects 3 years: understand relation between scale models and represented objects After 3 years: other symbolic forms learned
Speaking in Sentences From Two-Word Speech to Complex Sentences How Do Children Acquire Grammar?
Module 9.1 The Road to Speech Module 9.2 Learning the Meanings of Words Module 9.3 Speaking in Sentences How do children progress from speaking single words to complicated sentences? How do children acquire the grammar of their native language?
From Two-Word Speech to Complex Sentences Telegraphic speech Grammatical morphemes Over- regularization errors
“Wug” Stimuli What does this tell us about children’s application of rules that lead to creative communication?
How Do Children Acquire Grammar? Semantic bootstrapping theory At birth, children know nouns usually refer to people or objects and that verbs are actions With age, they use this knowledge to infer grammatical rules Development of grammar is tied to development of vocabulary
How Do Children Acquire Grammar? Behaviorist theory Development of grammar is learned through imitation and reinforcement
How Do Children Acquire Grammar? Specific brain region involved in language processing Only humans learn grammar Critical period for language learning identified Grammar development tied to vocabulary development Innate Grammar Mechanism theory
How Do Children Acquire Grammar? Cognitive theory Development of grammar is learned through powerful cognitive skills that help shape direction of regularities
How Do Children Acquire Grammar? Social-Interaction theory Development of language and grammar is eclectic Language mastered generally and grammar mastered specifically in social interaction contexts
Using Language to Communicate Taking Turns Speaking Effectively Listening Well
Module 9.1 The Road to Speech Module 9.2 Module 9.3 Speaking in Sentences Module 9.4 Using Language to Communicate When and how do children learn to take turns in conversation? What are the skills required to be an effective speaker? What is involved in becoming a good listener?
Taking Turns Before children speak, parents model turn- taking By 2 years, spontaneous turn- taking occurs By 3 years, children will try to elicit a response if listener fails to respond
Speaking Effectively Toddlers: first conversations about themselves Preschoolers: adjust speech based on age and needs of listener and context School-age children: speak differently to adults and peers African American children: may use code- switching
Listening Well Preschooler Listening Skill Development Ambiguity difficult Speaker’s intention often unclear Confusing parent statements better believed than classmate statements Understanding of non-literal meaning develops slowly