Outline To introduce the TCP/IP protocol suite and compare its layers with the ones in the OSI model. To show the functionality of each layer in the TCP/IP protocol with some examples. To discuss the addressing mechanism used in some layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite for the delivery of a message from the source to the destination.
TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed prior to the OSI model. – Layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite do not match exactly with those in the OSI model. – The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as four software layers built upon the hardware. Today, TCP/IP is a hierarchical protocol made up of five-layer interactive modules, with layers named similarly to the ones in the OSI model. Figure 7 shows both configurations. 3
Layers in TCP/IP protocol suite Assume we want to use the TCP/IP suite in a small, private internet. – Be made up of several small networks (links). – A link can be a LAN serving a small area or a WAN serving a larger area. Assume different links are connected together by routers or switches that route data to reach their final destination.
Physical layer TCP/IP does not define any specific protocol for this layer, but supports all standard and proprietary protocols. At this level, the communication is between two hops/nodes, either a computer or router. – The unit of communication is a single bit. When the connection is established between two nodes, a stream of bits is flowing between nodes. – This layer treats each bit individually. Note that a node connected to n links needs n physical-layer protocols.
10 The unit of communication at the physical layer is a bit.
Data link layer TCP/IP does not define any specific protocol for this layer either, but supports all standard and proprietary protocols. At this level, the communication is also between two hops/nodes, either a computer or router. – The unit of communication is a packet called a frame, which encapsulates the data received from the network layer with an added header and a trailer. The header includes the source and destination of frame. Note that a frame traveling between A and R1 maybe different from the one traveling between R1 and R3.
12 Figure 11 Communication at the data link layer
13 The unit of communication at the data link layer is a frame.
Network Layer TCP/IP supports the Internet Protocol (IP) for this layer. – IP is the transmission mechanism used by the TCP/IP protocols. – IP transports data in packets called datagrams, which can travel along different routes and arrive out of sequence or be duplicated. – IP does not keep track of routes and has no facility for reordering datagrams once they arrive at their destination. Communication at the network layer is end to end while the communication at other two layers are node to node. – Datagram started at computer A is the one that reaches B. – Network layers of routers can inspect the source and destination of the packet for find the best route, but are not allowed to change the packet contents.
15 Figure 12 Communication at the network layer
16 The unit of communication at the network layer is a datagram.
Transport layer This layer is responsible for sending individual datagrams from computer A to computer B. – Delivers the whole message, which is called a segment, which may consist of a few or tens of datagrams. Since the Internet defines a different route for each datagram, datagrams may arrive out of order and may be lost. – This layer at computer B needs to wait until all of these datagrams to arrive, assemble them and make a segment out of them. This layer is represented by two protocols. – User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). – A new protocol called Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) was introduced recently.
18 Figure 2.13 Communication at transport layer
19 The unit of communication at the transport layer is a segment, user datagram, or a packet, depending on the specific protocol used in this layer.
Application layer It is equivalent to the combined session, presentation, and application layers in the OSI model. – Allows a user to access the services of our private network or global Internet. – Many protocols are defined to provide services such as electronic mail, file transfer, accessing the WWW, etc. Communication at the application layer is also end to end. – A message generated at computer A is sent to B without being changed during the transmission.
21 Figure 2.14 Communication at application layer
22 The unit of communication at the application layer is a message.
4 ADDRESSING Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: – physical address, logical address, port address, and application-specific address. Each address is related to a one layer in the TCP/IP architecture, as shown in Figure 2.15. 23
24 Figure 2.15 Addresses in the TCP/IP protocol suite
Physical addresses Physical address is also known as link address. – The address of a node as defined by its LAN or WAN. – Being included in the frame used by data link layer. – Lowest level address. Size and format of these addresses vary depending on the network. – Ethernet uses a 6-byte physical address that is imprinted on the Network Interface Card (NIC). – LocalTalk has a 1-byte dynamic address that changes each time the station comes up.
Example 2.3 ( Figure 2.16 ) A node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87. The two nodes are connected by a link (a LAN). At the data link layer, this frame contains physical (link) addresses in the header. These are the only addresses needed. The rest of the header contains other information needed at this level. The data link layer at the sender receives data from an upper layer. It encapsulates the data in a frame. The frame is propagated through the LAN. Each station with a physical address other than 87 drops the frame because the destination address in the frame does not match its own physical address. The intended destination computer, however, finds a match between the destination address in the frame and its own physical address. 26
Example 2.4 As we will see in Chapter 3, most local area networks use a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte (2 hexadecimal digits) is separated by a colon, as shown below: 28 07:01:02:01:2C:4B A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address
Physical addresses – unicast, multicast and broadcast Physical addresses can be either unicast (one single recipient), multicast (a group of recipients), or broadcast (to be received by all systems in the network). Some networks support all three addresses. – Ethernet supports all three.
Logical Address A universal addressing system is needed in which each host can be identified uniquely, regardless of the underlying physical network. – Logic addresses are designed for this purpose. Logical address is necessary for universal communications that are independent of underlying physical networks. – Physical addresses are not adequate in an internetwork environment where different networks can have different address formats. A logical address in the Internet is a 32/64-bit address that can uniquely define a host connected to the Internet.
Example 2.5 ( Figure 2.17 ) It shows a part of an internet with two routers connecting three LANs. Each device (computer or router) has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for each connection. Each computer is connected to only one link and so has only one pair of addresses. Each router is connected to three networks. So each router has three pairs of addresses, one for each connection. It may be obvious that each router must have a separate physical address for each connection, but may not be obvious why it needs a logical address for each connection. (discuss later, homework) The computer with logical address A and physical address 10 needs to send a packet to the computer with logical address P and physical address 95. We use letters to show logical addresses and numbers for physical addresses, but note that both are actually numbers. 31
33 The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the logical addresses remain the same.
Port Addresses IP address and physical address are necessary for data to travel from a source to destination host. – Arrival at the destination host is not the final goal of data communication on the Internet. The end goal of Internet communication is a process communicating with another process. – Computer A and C communicate using TELNET. – A and B communicate using FTP at the same time. We need to label different processes to enable receiving data simultaneously. Port Address is the label assigned to a process, 16 bit in length.
Example 2.6 ( Figure 2.18 ) It shows two computers communicating via the Internet. The sending computer is running three processes at this time with port addresses a, b, and c. The receiving computer is running two processes at this time with port addresses j and k. Process a in the sending computer needs to communicate with process j in the receiving computer. Note that although both computers are using the same application, FTP, for example, the port addresses are different because one is a client program and the other is a server program ( we will see in Chapter 17). 35