Presentation on theme: "Land Uses & Water Pollution Sources Christopher Gale Bill Taft."— Presentation transcript:
Land Uses & Water Pollution Sources Christopher Gale Bill Taft
What is a Watershed? (or Drainage Basin) … the land area that drains runoff (rain or snow) into a lake, stream or river. The boundaries of a watershed, are hilltops and ridges. REVIEW! Source: Doppelt, Bob, Mary Scurlock, Chris Frissell, and James Karr. (1993: xiv). Entering the Watershed: A new approach to save America's River Ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press. Copyright: Pacific Rivers Council.
What are the Benefits of a Healthy Watershed Clean water Flood control Good fish & wildlife habitat Greater biodiversity More productive for timber & grazing Higher property values More attractive
What are land uses? The ways that people use the land.
o Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) o Sediment (dirt) o Bacteria o Pesticides o Road salt o Toxic chemicals o Metals (mercury, copper, etc.) What are Types of Pollutants?
Point and Non-point Sources of Water Pollution Point = water pollutants discharged from a pipe into lakes and rivers. Nonpoint = water pollutants carried by runoff over land and into lakes and rivers.
Point source pollution = water pollutants discharged from a pipe
Nonpoint Source Pollution = pollutants carried by water as it runs off over the land. The type of pollutant (sediment, fertilizer, nutrients, pesticides, etc.) depends upon the type of land use. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
#1 Parking Lot Urban Commercial Development Possible Pollutants Road salt Sediment Automotive fluids (toxic chemicals) Motor oil (toxic chemicals)
Bill Taft #2 Forest management Logging road Possible Pollutants: Sediment
#3 Homes Neighborhood Residential Pesticides (toxic chemicals) Fertilizers (nutrients) Pet wastes (bacteria & nutrients) Road salt Possible Pollutants
#5 New construction Sediment Possible Pollutants
#6 Stream channel straightened due to urban development Road salt Sediment Automotive fluids (toxic chemicals) Motor oil (toxic chemicals) Waterfowl wastes Possible Pollutants
#7 City Urban area Road salt Sediment Automotive fluids (toxic chemicals) Motor oil (toxic chemicals) Possible Pollutants
#8 Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Agriculture Cropland Sediment Fertilizer Pesticides Possible Pollutants
Leading Sources of Water Quality Impairment to Rivers (U.S.*) 1. Agricultural runoff (farming and livestock) 2. Municipal point sources (sewage treatment plants) 3. Streamside habitat changes (channelization, dredging, flow modifications) Leading pollutants: bacteria, nutrients, metals (primarily mercury), sediment * 2000 National Water Quality Inventory (EPA report). Data received on 33% of U.S. waters were assessed for this report. http://www.epa.gov/305b/2000report/factsheet.pdf
How can we reduce or prevent pollution ? BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPs) …are designed to control, prevent, remove, or reduce pollution. Three BMP categories: 1. Structural Practices o Grass or rock-lined drainage ditches. o Fence livestock away from stream o Sedimentation basin for parking lot runoff 2. Vegetative Practices o Cover crops o Leave tree and shrub “buffer strips” along streams 3. Management Practices o No till farming (don’t plow) o Rotate pastures used for livestock grazing o No grazing, logging, or building houses right next to a stream