Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:

7 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Information Processing John W. Santrock

2 What Is the Information-Processing Approach?
Analyzes the ways people process information about their world Manipulate information Monitor it Create strategies to deal with it Effectiveness involves attention, memory, thinking

3 Computers and Human Information Processing
The Information-Processing Approach Computers and Human Information Processing Fig. 7.1

4 Simplified Model of Information Processing
The Information-Processing Approach Simplified Model of Information Processing Fig. 7.2

5 Does Processing Speed Matter?
Linked with competence in thinking For many everyday tasks, speed is unimportant Efficient strategies can compensate for slower reaction times and speed Processing linked to accumulated knowledge and abilities to perform

6 What Is Attention? Focusing of mental resources
Three ways attention can be allocated Sustained attention Selective attention Divided attention

7 Concentrating on more than one activity at a time
Attention Types of Attention Sustained Attention Selective Attention Ability to maintain attention to selected stimulus over prolonged period; also called vigilance Focusing on specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others Divided Attention Concentrating on more than one activity at a time

8 What Is Memory? Retention of information over time
Allows humans to span time in reflection over life’s activities Memory has imperfections

9 Memory Processes of Memory Fig. 7.5

10 Constructing Memories
Memory Constructing Memories Schema theory Many reasons why memories are inaccurate People construct and reconstruct memories; mold to fit information already existing in mind Schemas: mental frameworks that organize concepts and information; affects encoding and retrieval

11 Memory False Memories New information such as questions or suggestions can alter memories Concerns about Implanting false memories in eyewitnesses Accuracy of eyewitness testimonies at trials Culture and gender linked to memory

12 Infancy First Memories
Memory Infancy First Memories Rovee-Collier infant memory experiments Implicit memory: memory without conscious recollection; skills and routine done automatically Explicit memory: conscious memory of facts and experiences; doesn’t appear until after 6 months

13 Infancy Infantile Amnesia
Memory Infancy Infantile Amnesia Adults recall little or none of first three years Also called childhood amnesia Due to immaturity of prefrontal lobes in brain; play important role in memory of events

14 Childhood Memory Considerable improvement after infancy
Short-term memory — memory span for up to 15 to 30 seconds without rehearsal Working memory — kind of mental workbench for manipulating and assembling information Make decisions, solve problems Comprehend written and spoken language

15 Memory Childhood Memory Long-term memory — relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory Children as eyewitnesses Age differences in susceptibility Individual differences in susceptibility Interviewing techniques can cause distortions; determines if child’s testimony is accurate

16 Long-Term Memory Strategies
Activities to improve information processing Rehearsal — repetition better for short-term Organizing — making information relevant Imagery — creating mental images Elaboration — engaging in more extensive processing of information

17 Working Memory and Processing Speed
Working memory performance peaked at 45 years of age; declined at 57 years of age Decline affected both new and old information Working memory linked to Reading and math achievement Processing speed

18 Explicit and Implicit Memory
Part of long-term memory systems Explicit memory: conscious or declarative memory Episodic memory—retention of information about where and when of life’s happenings Semantic memory—one’s knowledge about world including field of expertise Implicit memory: routine skills and procedures

19 Source Memory Ability to remember where something was learned
Contexts of Physical setting Emotional setting Identity of speaker Failures increase with age in adult years; relevancy of information affects ability

20 Prospective Memory Remembering to do something in the future
Age-related declines depend on task Time-based tasks decline more Event-based tasks show less decline

21 Influences on the Memory of Older Adults
Physiological and psychological factors Health Beliefs, expectations, and feelings Education, memory tasks, assessment Training and mneumonics improve memory Method of loci: storing mental images Chunking: put into manageable units

22 What Is Thinking? Manipulating and transforming information in memory
Reason, reflect, evaluate ideas, solve problems, make decisions Concepts — categories that group things Perceptual categorization: as young as 7 mos. Categorization increases in second year; infants differentiate more

23 Critical Thinking Grasping deeper meaning of ideas Involves
Ask what, how, and why Examine facts and determine evidence Recognize one or more explanations exist Compare various answers, select the best Evaluate before accepting as truth Speculate beyond what is known

24 Critical Thinking Few schools teach to students Encourage by
Students recite, define, describe, state, list Students not asked to analyze, create, rethink Encourage by Presenting controversial topics for discussion Motivate students to delve deeper into issues Teachers should refrain from giving own views

25 Scientific Thinking Aimed at identifying causal relationships Children
emphasize causal mechanisms more influenced by happenstance than by overall pattern Cling to old theories regardless of evidence Have difficulty designing experiments

26 Scientific Thinking Problem solving and children
Teach strategies and rules to solve problems Teacher is model, motivate children Use effective strategy instruction Encourage alternative strategies and approaches Analogical problem solving: occurs as early as age 1

27 Thinking in Adolescence
Critical Thinking If fundamental skills not developed during childhood, critical-thinking skills unlikely to mature in adolescence Decision Making Older adolescents appear as more competent decision makers than younger adolescents Ability does not guarantee every day usage

28 Thinking in Adulthood Practical problem solving, expertise improve
Expertise — extensive, highly organized knowledge and understanding of particular domain Use It or Lose It — practice helps cognitive skills Cognitive Training — can help some if skills are being lost Cognitive improvement tied to physical fitness and vitality

29 Metacognition What Is Metacognition? Knowledge about when and where to use particular strategies Metamemory—knowledge about memory Theory of mind— curiosity or thoughts about how mental processes work Changes as child ages

30 7 The End


Similar presentations

Ads by Google