Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

LE 222 Sound and English Sound system

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "LE 222 Sound and English Sound system"— Presentation transcript:

1 LE 222 Sound and English Sound system

2 Phonetics = The study of human speech sounds 3 branches of Phonetics
- Articulatory Phonetics: how speech sounds are articulated (made). It deals with the training of the lips Acoustic Phonetics: deals with the transmission of the speech sounds, how the sound waves are transmitted from the speaker to the hearer Auditory Phonetics: deals with the reception of speech wave via the ear

3 How speech sounds are produced
The air pushed out by the lungs up to the windpipe (trachea) to the voice box (larynx). This said to be “pulmonic airstram machenicsm.” The air is shaped in various ways by the vocal tract.


5 Basic Phonetic Characteristics
State of the vocal folds The vocal folds are inside the larynx (voice box). If they are pressed together, creating a vibration => Voiced b d z If they are apart and stationary => Voiceless p t k

6 Vocal cords http://singingmiracle

7 Basic Phonetic Characteristics
2. Airstream mechanism and direction of airstream -involves a cavity in the vocal apparatus which changes in size due to the contraction so initiating the air movement Pulmonic airstream (muscles of the rib cage --- very common) Glottalic airstream (closed glottis -- ??o ) Velaric airstream (tongue back -> click sounds – quite rare)

8 Airstream mechanism and direction of airstream
Airstream moves inward and outword. English => outward (egressive) => pumulnic air Click sounds => inward (ingressive) => velaric air Glottalic => ingressive or egressive

9 Basic Phonetic Characteristics
3. Velic closure and the cavities in which the sound resonates The 2 common cavities which cause the sounds to resonate are oral cavity and nasal cavity

10 Basic Phonetic Characteristics
Velic closure and the cavities in which the sound resonates When the passageway in the nose and mouth is open => velic opening (the air flows through nose and the mouth) => nasals m n N - When there is velic closure (the velum is raised against the pharygeal wall => velic closure (the air flows through the mouth => oral sounds b d

11 Basic Phonetics Characteristics
4. Manner of articulation Speech sounds involve a moving and vibrating airstream The air is completed impeded (blocked) => stops p t k The air is greatly impeded (blocked only a bit not completely) creating a turbulence => fricatives f s z The air is slightly impeded (hardly blocked at all) => vowels a I o, approximants l w

12 Basic Phonetic Characteristics
5. Articulators Active articulators (moveable parts of the vocal apparatus). The ones that move to touch the passive articulators Passive articulators (fixed part of the mouth that the active ones move and get close to)

13 http://www. sil. org/mexico/ling/glosario/e005bi-organsart
Face Diagram

14 Basic Phonetic Characteristics
6. Place of articulation The joining of active and passive articulators as they impede the airstream. The sounds are described according to the place of articulation (*See page 6: Articulatory Phonetics)

Download ppt "LE 222 Sound and English Sound system"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google