Descriptive grammar term 1 Dorota Klimek-Jankowska
What does your linguistic knowledge of English include? LEXICON Does your linguistic knowledge of English include only lexicon? CLINTONIZE Have you ever encountered this word before?
Is it a noun or a verb? Do you agree that it means: acting in a Clinton-like fashion? How do you know what this word may mean if it was not in your lexicon earlier? Language is creative. It consists not only of lexical items but of linguistic rules as well. We have an unconscious knowledge that the morpheme –ize attaches to nouns to form verbs
Clintonize Reagonize Nixonize Linconize *Bushize *Fordize *Adamsize *Rooseveltize -ize can be added to a noun if this noun consists of two syllables and ends with ‘n’, otherwise not.
Conclusion: We all had a strong intuition that only the first group of words is acceptable in English, but we did not know why. It means that linguistic knowledge is tacit, unconscious, we have problems verbalizing linguistic rules, we have to discover them
The goal of this DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR course is: to help you reach the awareness of rules and mechanisms which underlie SPEECH PRODUCTION (phonetic and phonological rules of ENGLISH)
Subdysciplines of linguistics: Phonetics – the study of human speech sounds, the study of production, perception and analysis of sounds Phonology – the study of how sounds interact within larger units Morphology – the study of the structure of words Syntax – the study of how words combine to form sentences Semantics – the study of meanings of words and sentences Pragmatics – the study of meanings of utterances. Isn’t it too cold in here? (a request)
Why are humans adapted for speech production? Which organs help us speak? TEETH (evenly space and even in hight – to form a barrier) LIPS (muscular and mobile) TONGUE (muscular and mobile – it enables vowel production) LARYNX (responsible for swelling and air-flow) LUNGS (breathing in is faster than breathing out) BRAIN (specialised hemispheres)
What is the relation between sounds and spelling in English? How many letters and how many sounds in: 1) Bill 2) tree 3) bitter The relationship between English spelling and sounds is not one-to-one The same letter does not always represent the same sound: cough, though Some letters are silent in pronunciation psychology, knight, sward, doubt, would The same sound is not always represented by the same letters: /i:/: key, bee
Because letters of English do not always represent sounds, we need a separate alphabet to be able to talk about sounds of English without misunderstandings The International Phonetic Alphabet (the IPA) - allows sounds of English to be written down - in this alphabet the relation between sounds and letters is one-to-one - In this course we will be concerned only with sounds of English - (on the blackboard: vowels, consonants)
Let us start with PHONETICS of English Articulatory phonetics: how we produce sounds, concerned with organs of speech Acoustic phonetics: studies the properties of sound waves which form a physical link between a speaker and a hearer Auditory phonetics: studies the way humans perceive sounds by the auditory system In this course we will deal with ARTICULATORY PHONETICS!!!!
Upper and lower lips Upper and lower teeth ROOF OF THE MOUTH: The alveolar ridge The hard palate The soft palate (velum) UVULA Organs of speech PHARYNX LARYNX: vocal cords - glottis Epiglottis esophagus
THE TONGUE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ARTICULATOR: IT IS A COMPLEX MUSCLE: Tip Blade – lies below the alveolar ridge Front of the tongue – lies below the hard palate Back of the tongue – lies below the soft palate Root of the tongue – opposite the back wall of the pharynx
Vocal track: the space between our lips and vocal cords Active articulators: tongue, lips, soft palate, lower jaw, uvula, pharynx, vocal cords, glottis Passive articulators: teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, upper jaw
Speech production: Three stages of speech production: initiation, phonation, articulation When we drive we use petrol, what makes speaking possible? Which organ supplies the airstream when we speak English? Do we breathe in or breathe out when we speak English? When the lungs contract, they push the air out – they create the outgoing airstream
All sounds of English are produced with the PULMONIC initiation Pulmonic initiation: the airstream is created in the lungs There are languages in which sounds may be produced with the velaric initiation: clicks Glottalic initiation: the airstream is initiated in the glottis: surprise Sounds may be egressive (outflowing) when we exhale or ingressive (inflowing) when we inhale All English sounds are egressive STAGE I: INITIATION OF THE AIRSTREAM
STAGE II: PHONATION When the airstream is initiated in the lungs, it flows through the trachea to larynx. Vocal cords form the GLOTTIS which is situated inside the larynx. This is where the airstream turns into VOICE– (vocal cords) States of vocal cords - handout
To identify voiced and voiceless sounds put your thumb on your larynx, say ssssszzzz voiceless sounds: vocal cords are open, they don’t vibrate, voiced sounds: vocal cords are close together, the passing air sets them in motion, they vibrate Glottal stop: complete closure of the vocal cords: clock, button
STAGE 3: ARTICULATION After the air passes through the larynx, it can be modified by the movement of different articulators like lips and tongue for example We describe articulation by means of two parameters: Place and manner or articulation Assignment: Read chapter 1 including the section about Different places of articulation involved in the production of sounds
Which place of articulation is involved in the production of: /p,b,m/ BILABIAL (both lips create an obstruction to the airstream) /f,v/ LABIODENTAL (the lower lip and the upper teeth come tohether) / , / INTERDENTAL (the tip of the tongue is placed between the upper and lower front teeth)
/t, d, n, s, z, l/ ALVEOLAR (the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge) / , Ʒ, t , d Ʒ / PALATO-ALVEOLAR OR POST-ALVEOLAR OR ALVEALO-PALATAL (the blade of the tongue is placed at the junction of the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. /r/ RETROFLEX (the tip of the tongue is curled back to the post-alveolar area) /j/ PALATAL (the front of the tongue articulates against the hard palate)
/k, g, ŋ/ VELAR (the back of the tongue articulates with the velum – soft palate) /h/ and ?-glottal stop/ GLOTTAL /w/ (two places of articulation) - labial – lips are rounded and - velar – the back of the tongue moves closer to the velum (soft palate) - /w/ has a LABIO-VELAR place of articulation