# Lecture 11 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 21.8  21.13 Outline Discovery and Studies of Electromagnetic Waves Properties of Electromagnetic Waves The Spectrum.

## Presentation on theme: "Lecture 11 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 21.8  21.13 Outline Discovery and Studies of Electromagnetic Waves Properties of Electromagnetic Waves The Spectrum."— Presentation transcript:

Lecture 11 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 21.8  21.13 Outline Discovery and Studies of Electromagnetic Waves Properties of Electromagnetic Waves The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves

Discovery of EM Waves J.C.Maxwell proposed that a changing electric field has an associated magnetic field. A changing magnetic field generates an electric current  electromagnetic induction. Such a combined effect results in existence of electromagnetic waves, which can travel indefinitely in empty space (vacuum).waves Electromagnetic waves travel with the speed of light.travel

Properties of EM Waves The electric and magnetic fields of a wave are perpendicular to each other and to the travel direction. EM waves are transverse waves. EM waves travel with the speed of light (c). EM waves carry both energy and momentum.momentum 1 c =  =  (  0 є 0 ) 2.998 10 8 m/s c = E/B For an EM wave: Average power per unit area E max B max E max 2 c B max 2  =  =  2  0 2  0 c 2  0

Problem with EM waves Problem: An EM wave in vacuum has an electric field amplitude of 300 V/m. Find the amplitude of the corresponding magnetic field. c =E/B  B = E/c B = 300 V/m / 3 10 8 m/s = 10  6 T = 1  T

Properties of EM Waves All EM waves travel through space with a speed c  their wavelength and frequency f are related: f = c Demonstration The wavelength is the distance between adjacent peaks of the electric or magnetic field 1 nm (nanometer) = 10 –9 m 1μm (micron) = 10 –6 m The frequency is the number of peaks that pass by any point each second, measured in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz). light demo

The Spectrum of EM Waves The total variety of EM waves is called the electromagnetic spectrum. Different portions of the spectrum are called: Gamma rays  the shortest wavelength light X rays - wavelengths shorter than ultraviolet The ultraviolet light - beyond the blue end of rainbow The visible light - what we see with our eyes The infrared light - beyond of the red end of rainbow Radio waves - light with the longest wavelengths

Electromagnetic spectrum

E = energy h = Planck constant = frequency E = h

Summary Electromagnetic waves are fluctuations generated by moving charges that produce fluctuating electric and magnetic fields. Visible light is only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Download ppt "Lecture 11 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 21.8  21.13 Outline Discovery and Studies of Electromagnetic Waves Properties of Electromagnetic Waves The Spectrum."

Similar presentations