2 Morphemes Defined as, “a minimal unit of meaning” Not the same as a syllable, which is a unit of sound (e.g., tuxedo has one morpheme and three syllables, while sixths has three morphemes and one syllable)Not the same as a word, although a word can contain only one morpheme (e.g., tree, tuxedo)Some morphemes are bound, meaning they can only appear attached to some other morpheme (e.g., -s, -ly, -un). Free morphemes can appear by themselves as words
3 AllomorphsDefined as “a variant of morpheme;” variant can be in pronunciation and/or spellingExamples:Hymn, hymnal-ible, -able, gullible/gullibility, usableElectric/electricityCondemn/condemnation
4 Inflectional vs. Derivational Morphology Derivational Morphemes form new words, often changing the word class (part of speech) - E.g., bake/baker, legal/legalizeInflectional Morphemes make a different form of the same word, such as plural or past tense. The eight inflectional morphemes in English will be shown on the next slide.
5 English Inflectional Morphemes On Nouns:Plural -sPossessive -’sOn Verbs:3rd person singular present tense -sPast tense -edPart participle -enPresent participle -ingOn Adjectives:Comparative -erSuperlative -est
6 Types of MorphologyAffixation - adding an affix (prefix or suffix) to a root (e.g., en-list-ed)Compounding - combining two or more roots in a single word (e.g., eggplant, greenhouse)Internal Change - changing part of the root (e.g., sit/sat, foot/feet, mouse/mice)Suppletion - changing the root completely (e.g., good/better, is/am)Zero-Change - changing nothing (e.g., fish/fish, hit/hit)
12 Word Classes (Parts of Speech) Form Class WordsAlso known as “Content Words” and “Open Class Words”Have Semantic ContentNouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and AdverbsStructure Class WordsAlso know as “Function Words” and “Closed Class Words”Have a Grammatical FunctionPronouns, Articles, Prepositions, Auxiliaries…