Presentation on theme: "ARCHETYPAL or MYTH CRITICISM"— Presentation transcript:
1 ARCHETYPAL or MYTH CRITICISM patterns that transcend time and geography
2 “Whether we listen with aloof amusement to the dreamlike mumbo jumbo of some red-eyedwitch doctor of the Congo, or read with cultivatedrapture thin translations from the sonnets of themystic Lao-tse; now and again crack the hardnutshell of an argument of Aquinas, or catchsuddenly the shining meaning of a bizarre Eskimofairy tale, it will be always the one, shape-shiftingyet marvelously constant story that we find.” (3)Joseph CampbellHero With a Thousand Faces
3 “We all travel, if not in space in time. And since the first strolling teller-of-talesenthralled his audience at the first campfire,we have all loved travelers and travelers’ tales.From Gilgamesh through Odysseus to BilboBaggins and Frodo, the epic journey andits hero continue to capture our imagination.”Rodney StandenThe Changing Face of the Hero
4 Archetypal critics account for a universality in literature by pointing to recurring patterns and images that appear so deeply embedded in the human mind and culture that they strike a responsive chord in everyone.
5 Archetypal Criticism also called Myth Criticism has roots in anthropological and psychological studiesLate 19th and early 20th centurieshas roots in anthropological and psychological studies of the late 19th and early 20th centuries
6 Sir James Frazer Cambridge anthropologist examined primitive rituals that indicated similar patterns of behavior and belief among diverse and widely separated cultures
7 Frazer...The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (1922) - 12 volumesexplanation of motives behind customsItalian people of the shores of Lake Nemirule of kingly succession was to pluck the bough from a sacred tree and then kill the old king in individual combatfound this custom was similar or connection of other customs in other peoplesOur library contains the 12 volume set as well as the 2-volume set.
8 Gilbert Murray “Hamlet and Orestes” in The Classic Tradition in Poetry found similarities in Shakespeare’s Hamlet and the Greek Orestesboth are sons of kings killed by younger kinsmen who then marry the dead king’s wifeboth are driven by supernatural forces to avenge their father’s deathboth end not only by slaying the new king but also by being responsible for their mother’s deathfound similarities in Shakespeare’s Hamlet and the Greek Orestes so striking they could hardly be explained as chance or accident.
9 Murray...explores connection in the mythic patterns underlying the Greek Orestes saga and the Scandinavian Hamlet story.behind both is the “world-wide ritual story of what we may call the Golden-Bough Kings” (Murray 228)pattern identified by Frazer in which life is renewed through the slaying of an old monarch and succession by a new one.
10 Carl Jung psychologist student of Freud The Basic Writing of C.G. Jung first gave prominence to the term archetype
11 Carl Jung Collective Unconscious Shared by all humans an unconscious “which does not derive from personal experience and is not a personal acquisition but is inborn” (Jung 289)became convinced that all humans share a “collective unconscious,” an unconscious “which does not derive from personal experience and is not a personal acquisition but is inborn” (Jung 289)
12 Carl Jung Archetypes contents of the collective unconscious defined as primordial or “universal images that have existed since the remotest times” (Jung 288)formed during the earliest stages of human developmentJung called the contents of the collective unconscious archetypes, which he defined as primordial or “universal images that have existed since the remotest times” (Jung 288)
13 Carl JungAlthough the theory may seem almost mystic, Jung found no other way to account for the appearance of nearly identical images and patterns in the mind of individuals from wholly different cultures and backgrounds.
14 Jung... Jung notes instances which suggest that water is a symbol of the unconscious and the action of descending to the water is a symbol of the frightening experience of confronting the depths of one’s unconscious.dreams of Protestant clergymenlegends of African tribes
15 Jung...Jung’s account of a patient who in 1906 related visions containing odd symbolic configurations.later he encountered similar symbols in a Greek papyrus first deciphered in 1910
16 Jung Theory of Individuation A psychological “growing up” A process of learning of one’s own individualityA process of self-recognition which is essential to becoming a well-balanced personNeuroses are result of person’s failure to confront and accept archetypal components of the unconscious
17 Jung… Inherited components of the psyche Principles Archetypes Animus AnimaShadow
18 ANIMUSPhysical manRepresents physical, brute strength of man and his animal instinctsCan be the “masculine” designation of the female psyche
19 ANIMA The “soul image” The spiritual life-force The “living thing in man, that which lives of itself and causes life…” “…the archetype of life itself” (Jung, Archetypes 26)Feminine designation in the male psycheAssociated with feelings, passions, instinctive, unconscious aspect of the psycheThe image of the beautiful woman, anima, is, in C.G. Jung's words, "the archetype of life itself." In myth, anima is associated with feelings, passions, and the instinctive, unconscious aspect of the psyche. In her higher manifestations she suggests the vivifying power of soul, or spiritual life.
20 SHADOW The darker side of our unconscious self Inferior, less pleasing aspect of the personalityRepresents “the dangerous aspect of the unrecognized dark half of the personality” (Jung, Two Essays 94)Needs to be suppressedWhen projected, this archetype becomesThe villainThe devil
21 The theory of archetypes would explain not only such instances as these but also the similarity of myths and rituals found by Frazer, for archetypes are universal patterns from which myths derive.
23 Maud Bodkin Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934) among first literary studies in the Jungian traditionapplication of psychological knowledge to works of literature
24 Bodkin... Rime of the Ancient Mariner rebirth archetype “night journey under the sea”going down to the water (into depths of one’s own being) [death] precedes a “rebirth” into greater wisdom and self-knowledgeJonah - biblical parallel
25 Northrop Frye Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (1957) Relies solely upon literature to draw the archetypal patterns.Calls the theory of collective unconscious an “unnecessary hypothesis in literary criticism” (Frye 112)Frye has a differing opinion of archetypal patterns than Jung or Frazer…he relies on the analysis of literature to find the patterns. Archetypes are created by authors…exist throughout time
26 Frye...Shifts definition of archetype from psychological to the literaryArchetype is “a symbol, usually an image, which recurs often enough in literature to be recognized as an element of one’s literary experience as a whole” (Frye 365)
27 Frye... four types of literature (narrative patterns) Unifying myth mythosUnifying mythanalogous to seasons of yearto the story of the birth, death, and rebirth of the mythic hero
28 Frye... Mythos of SUMMER: Romance analogous to the birth and youthful adventures of the mythic herosuggests innocence and triumphnarrative of wish-fulfillment with good character triumphing over badSir Gawain and the Green KnightRobin Hoodold-fashioned cowboy movies
29 Frye... Mythos of AUTUMN: Tragedy major movement toward the death or defeat of the heroOedipusKing Lear
30 Frye... Mythos of WINTER: Irony or Satire hero now absent society is left without effective leadership or sense of norms/valuesSwift’s A Modest Proposalsocial norms are turned upside down for artistic purposesConrad’s Heart of DarknessKafkaCamussense of hopelessness and bondage
31 Frye... Mythos of SPRING: Comedy rebirth of hero renewal of life in which those elements of society who would block the hero are overcomehero and heroine take their rightful placeorder is restoredShakespearian comedies
32 Frye...Every work of literature has its place within this scheme or myth.Every piece of literature adds to the myth.For Frye, every work of literature has its place within this scheme or myth, and every piece of literature adds to the myth.
33 Leslie FiedlerBegins examination with literary works themselves, rather than with universal patternsConcerned with defining unique cultural patterns within literatureAn End to Innocence: Essays on Culture and Politics (1955)Love and Death in the American Novel (1962)
34 Fiedler...Uses insights of archetypal criticism to isolate patterns within literature of a given culture or author.An End to Innocencesees a single, though controversial, archetype:“the mutual love of a white man and a colored…the boy’s homoerotic crush, the love of the black…” (Fiedler 146)Uses insights of archetypal criticism to isolate telling patterns within literature of a given culture or author.In An End to Innocence, he sees a single, though controversial, archetype:“the mutual love of a white man and a colored…the boy’s homoerotic crush, the love of the black…” (Fiedler 146)
35 Fiedler...Argues that where in European novels we would expect to find heterosexual passion, we discover same-sex relationshipJames Fenimore CooperNatty Bumppo and Chingachgook (Leatherstocking novels – The Last of the Mohicans, The Deerslayer, etc.)Herman MelvilleIshmael and Queequeg (Moby Dick)Mark TwainHuck and Jim (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)
36 Fiedler... American pattern that may be limited historically Is a pattern that repeats itselfSeems widely shared at a level beneath consciousnessIs for Fiedler, “a symbol, persistent, obsessive, in short, an archetype” (Fiedler 146)
37 Bibliography Bodkin, Maud. Archetypal Patterns in Poetry, London: Oxford UP, 1934.Campbell, Joseph. The Hero With a Thousand Faces.New York: Pantheon, 1949.Fiedler, Leslie. An End to Innocence: Essays on Cultureand Politics. Boston: Beacon, 1955.Love and Death in the American Novel. Cleveland:World, 1962.
38 Bibliography Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion New York: McMillan, 1940.Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton:Princeton UP, 1957.Guerin, Wilfred L. et. al. A Handbook of Critical Approachesto Literature. 4th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1999.Jung, Carl Gustav. The Basic Writings of C.G. Jung. Ed.Violet Staub De Laszlo. New York: Modern, 1959.
39 BibliographyMurray, Gilbert. The Classical Tradition in Poetry. Cambridge:Harvard UP, 1927.Standen, Rodney. The Changing Face of the Hero. Wheaton, IL:Theosophical Publishing House, 1987.