2 Color in Textiles and Fashion Research and common sense tells us that the majority of consumers base their purchases primarily on visual stimuli.One of the first stimuli to reach the eyes is colorThe first judgment of a garment or accessory is usually color-based
3 The Language of Color Hue Intensity/Chroma Value The specific name of a colorEach color on the color wheel is a hueBlack, white, and gray do not appear on the color wheel because they have no hueIntensity/ChromaThe brightness or dullness of a colorYou can lessen a colors intensity by mixing it with its complement – the color on the opposite of the color wheelColors of low intensity are more muted and called tones, and colors of high intensity are intense or pureValueLightness or darkness of a colorTint – adding white to a hue raises its value or lightens itShade – adding black to a hue lowers its value or darkens it
4 Intensity versus value Mix the color’s complementMix white or black to the color
6 Color Characteristics Warm colors include yellow, orange and red associated with the heat of the sun or a fire.Cool colors include green, blue and violet and provide a cool, calming effect.Neutral colors include white, black and gray.Each color can be warm or cool depending on it’s base. Does it have a reddish tone underneath, or a bluish one? Sometimes you can’t tell until you compare it to another color.
7 Warm and Cool Colors Warm Colors Cool Colors Colors of the sun Red, Orange, and yellowRed-orange the warmest colorCool ColorsColors of the oceanBlues and greens
9 Color and PsychologyColors can affect our mood or demonstrate it to others. Sometimes this is accurate, and sometimes only perceived.Color psychology varies by culture, region and personality and should always be taken with a grain of salt.There are some basics to be aware of on the following pagesWhat do you think colors mean? Take the quiz at urvey/
10 The Magic of Color Setting the Mood Red Orange Blue Green Yellow Make people feel bold, excited or even nervous, can stimulate eating and drinkingOrangeLess aggressive, feel friendly, hopeful, and full of energyBlueSubdued and calming, can also be depressing, bright blue can lower blood pressure, body temperature and pulse rateGreenCalmingYellowCheerfulness and happiness, gold is more formalNeutral colorsWhite, clean and isolationGray, lack of energy, silver indicates high technology
24 Color Systems The first color wheel was invented by Newton Color systems are used to organize colors. Several main systems are used today.
25 Viewing Color In order for color to exist, three parts are needed: The object being viewedThe viewerLightIn essence, without light, color cannot be viewed, and does not exist.An object absorbs all colors except the color that it reflects – so actually it is every color except what you see!
26 Additive Color SystemThis is the system based off of Light as color. The three main colors: red, blue and green are added together to create white.Black is the absence of light
27 Subtractive Color Theory This is the theory that works for most pigments and the color wheel works with to a point. The common color wheel uses red, blue and yellow. True pigment primaries are cyan, magenta and yellow. Mixed together, they create black. White is the absence of color.
28 The Brewster System The common color wheel Includes three primary colors – yellow, red, and blue located equidistant from each other on the color wheel.By mixing equal amount of two primary colors, three secondary colors are formed – orange, green and violet.Likewise, by adding equal amounts of a primary and corresponding secondary color, a tertiary color is formed – i.e. yellow-orange, red-orange…
32 Tertiary Colors Located between a primary and a secondary color. Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, and yellow-green.Tertiary colors are made by combining a primary color with a neighboring secondary color
33 The Ostwald SystemBased on four hues: yellow, red, blue and green spaced equidistant apart.Between these hues are orange, purple, turquoise, and leaf green.In addition there are two intermediate hues on each side of these eight hues forming a color system based on 24 hues.
34 The Munsell SystemA scientific system of describing hue, value and chroma (intensity) and is based on five principal hues: yellow, green, blue, purple and red.Both value and chroma are designated in 10 steps.The Munsell system offers an effective means for accurately communicating color descriptions.
36 Color HarmoniesColor harmonies are colors that when used together create a pleasing effect.A monochromatic color harmony is based on a various values and intensities of a single color, such as various shades of blue.An analogous color harmony combines three to five hues that are located next to each other on a color wheel such as blue, blue-green and green.
37 Color Schemes Monochromatic Color scheme uses tints and shades of one color on the color wheel
38 Color Schemes Analogous Color scheme uses colors that are next to each other on the color wheel
39 Color HarmoniesA complementary color harmony is based on two colors located directly opposite each other on the color wheel, such as green and red.A split-complementary color harmony is based on a color plus the two colors directly adjacent to the complementary color, such as red, yellow-green and blue- green.A double-complementary color harmony includes the set of two complementary color harmonies such as yellow, violet, blue and orange.
40 Complementary Color Scheme Color scheme uses two colors that are directly opposite each other on the color wheel
41 Split Complementary Color Scheme Color scheme uses three colors. It combines one color with the two colors on each side of its complement.
42 Color HarmoniesA triadic color harmony includes three color at equal distance from each other of the color wheel such as red, yellow and blue.A neutral color harmony is based on black, white and gray and may include brown, tan and beige.
43 Triad Color SchemeColor scheme uses any three hues that are an equal distance apart on the color wheel.
44 TetradA color scheme using 4 colors equal distance apart or 2 sides equal distance apart on the color wheel
45 Neutral SchemeColor scheme uses neutral elements such as tans, black, white or grey.
48 Color TheoryComplex phenomenon: Physics of light, chemistry of colored objects, biology of the eye, behavioral sciences, and aesthetics.Metamerism: A color matches with one light source, but not with any other light source.Bezold effect: When two or more colors merge into one new color, i.e., small scale print or yarn dyed fabric viewed from a distance.
49 Color Name and Measurement The human eye can distinguish a very large amount of colors, but only remember a few at a time. Describing colors varies from person to person, so a standard numerical system works best.Assign numerical values to a color.Used to match color and sort shades.Color matching developing a formula to reproduce a color.Shade sorting occurs when a manufacturer groups fabrics by color so that all fabric of one color match.
52 Trend ForecastingA very large industry not only within the fashion world, but all design industries (automotive, interiors, technology, etc.)Evaluate the progression of trends using a series of resources.In fashion there are 4 levels of trend prediction:Color – 2 years aheadTexture and fabricationSurface interestSilhouette