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Color Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Color Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Color Theory

2 Color in Textiles and Fashion
Research and common sense tells us that the majority of consumers base their purchases primarily on visual stimuli. One of the first stimuli to reach the eyes is color The first judgment of a garment or accessory is usually color-based

3 The Language of Color Hue Intensity/Chroma Value
The specific name of a color Each color on the color wheel is a hue Black, white, and gray do not appear on the color wheel because they have no hue Intensity/Chroma The brightness or dullness of a color You can lessen a colors intensity by mixing it with its complement – the color on the opposite of the color wheel Colors of low intensity are more muted and called tones, and colors of high intensity are intense or pure Value Lightness or darkness of a color Tint – adding white to a hue raises its value or lightens it Shade – adding black to a hue lowers its value or darkens it

4 Intensity versus value
Mix the color’s complement Mix white or black to the color

5 Tint, Shade and Tone Tint Shade Tone

6 Color Characteristics
Warm colors include yellow, orange and red associated with the heat of the sun or a fire. Cool colors include green, blue and violet and provide a cool, calming effect. Neutral colors include white, black and gray. Each color can be warm or cool depending on it’s base. Does it have a reddish tone underneath, or a bluish one? Sometimes you can’t tell until you compare it to another color.

7 Warm and Cool Colors Warm Colors Cool Colors Colors of the sun
Red, Orange, and yellow Red-orange the warmest color Cool Colors Colors of the ocean Blues and greens

8 Warm and Cool

9 Color and Psychology Colors can affect our mood or demonstrate it to others. Sometimes this is accurate, and sometimes only perceived. Color psychology varies by culture, region and personality and should always be taken with a grain of salt. There are some basics to be aware of on the following pages What do you think colors mean? Take the quiz at urvey/

10 The Magic of Color Setting the Mood Red Orange Blue Green Yellow
Make people feel bold, excited or even nervous, can stimulate eating and drinking Orange Less aggressive, feel friendly, hopeful, and full of energy Blue Subdued and calming, can also be depressing, bright blue can lower blood pressure, body temperature and pulse rate Green Calming Yellow Cheerfulness and happiness, gold is more formal Neutral colors White, clean and isolation Gray, lack of energy, silver indicates high technology








18 Color and Cultures


20 Branding and color Color can be an instant and powerful identifier when connected to certain labels and brands.

21 Color and Design

22 Color and Texture

23 Color and Proportion

24 Color Systems The first color wheel was invented by Newton
Color systems are used to organize colors. Several main systems are used today.

25 Viewing Color In order for color to exist, three parts are needed:
The object being viewed The viewer Light In essence, without light, color cannot be viewed, and does not exist. An object absorbs all colors except the color that it reflects – so actually it is every color except what you see!

26 Additive Color System This is the system based off of Light as color. The three main colors: red, blue and green are added together to create white. Black is the absence of light

27 Subtractive Color Theory
This is the theory that works for most pigments and the color wheel works with to a point. The common color wheel uses red, blue and yellow. True pigment primaries are cyan, magenta and yellow. Mixed together, they create black. White is the absence of color.

28 The Brewster System The common color wheel
Includes three primary colors – yellow, red, and blue located equidistant from each other on the color wheel. By mixing equal amount of two primary colors, three secondary colors are formed – orange, green and violet. Likewise, by adding equal amounts of a primary and corresponding secondary color, a tertiary color is formed – i.e. yellow-orange, red-orange…

29 Color Wheel

30 Secondary Colors Orange, purple, and green
Created by mixing equal parts of two primary colors. Purple Orange Green

31 Secondary Colors

32 Tertiary Colors Located between a primary and a secondary color.
Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, and yellow-green. Tertiary colors are made by combining a primary color with a neighboring secondary color

33 The Ostwald System Based on four hues: yellow, red, blue and green spaced equidistant apart. Between these hues are orange, purple, turquoise, and leaf green. In addition there are two intermediate hues on each side of these eight hues forming a color system based on 24 hues.

34 The Munsell System A scientific system of describing hue, value and chroma (intensity) and is based on five principal hues: yellow, green, blue, purple and red. Both value and chroma are designated in 10 steps. The Munsell system offers an effective means for accurately communicating color descriptions.


36 Color Harmonies Color harmonies are colors that when used together create a pleasing effect. A monochromatic color harmony is based on a various values and intensities of a single color, such as various shades of blue. An analogous color harmony combines three to five hues that are located next to each other on a color wheel such as blue, blue-green and green.

37 Color Schemes Monochromatic
Color scheme uses tints and shades of one color on the color wheel

38 Color Schemes Analogous
Color scheme uses colors that are next to each other on the color wheel

39 Color Harmonies A complementary color harmony is based on two colors located directly opposite each other on the color wheel, such as green and red. A split-complementary color harmony is based on a color plus the two colors directly adjacent to the complementary color, such as red, yellow-green and blue- green. A double-complementary color harmony includes the set of two complementary color harmonies such as yellow, violet, blue and orange.

40 Complementary Color Scheme
Color scheme uses two colors that are directly opposite each other on the color wheel

41 Split Complementary Color Scheme
Color scheme uses three colors. It combines one color with the two colors on each side of its complement.

42 Color Harmonies A triadic color harmony includes three color at equal distance from each other of the color wheel such as red, yellow and blue. A neutral color harmony is based on black, white and gray and may include brown, tan and beige.

43 Triad Color Scheme Color scheme uses any three hues that are an equal distance apart on the color wheel.

44 Tetrad A color scheme using 4 colors equal distance apart or 2 sides equal distance apart on the color wheel

45 Neutral Scheme Color scheme uses neutral elements such as tans, black, white or grey.

46 Inspiration for Colors Schemes

47 Inspiration for Colors Schemes

48 Color Theory Complex phenomenon: Physics of light, chemistry of colored objects, biology of the eye, behavioral sciences, and aesthetics. Metamerism: A color matches with one light source, but not with any other light source. Bezold effect: When two or more colors merge into one new color, i.e., small scale print or yarn dyed fabric viewed from a distance.

49 Color Name and Measurement
The human eye can distinguish a very large amount of colors, but only remember a few at a time. Describing colors varies from person to person, so a standard numerical system works best. Assign numerical values to a color. Used to match color and sort shades. Color matching developing a formula to reproduce a color. Shade sorting occurs when a manufacturer groups fabrics by color so that all fabric of one color match.

50 Names

51 Measurement

52 Trend Forecasting A very large industry not only within the fashion world, but all design industries (automotive, interiors, technology, etc.) Evaluate the progression of trends using a series of resources. In fashion there are 4 levels of trend prediction: Color – 2 years ahead Texture and fabrication Surface interest Silhouette

53 Forecasting Color

54 Forecasting Surface Interest

55 Trade shows

56 Cool hunters

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