1880-1881 First Anglo-Boer War over independent Boer republics in the North
1899-1902 Second Anglo-Boer War Ended in conversion of Afrikaner republics to British possessions
1910 Formation of the Union of South Africa (commonwealth of Britain)
1948 The National Party wins control of the government in South Africa (conservative Afrikaner party)
1948-1990 It is from the election of 1948, that Apartheid, or the policy of racial segregation, is deemed to become official policy in South Africa. The reality is that segregation and the recognition and creation of Black tribal homelands had preceded 1948 by centuries.
1960 Sharpeville Massacre Black South Africans protest pass laws; 69 killed (shot in the back) and hundreds injured
1960-1962 Black political parties officially banned Nelson Mandela and other ANC activists are arrested on crimes of treason
1976 Soweto Uprising Black South African students protest against the Afrikaans Medium Decree of 1974 which forced all black schools to use Afrikaans and English in a 50-50 mix as languages of instruction.
1990 Nelson Mandela is released from prison after 27 years
1994 Nelson Mandela becomes 1st democratically elected black president of South Africa