Presentation on theme: "Liberalism: Conclusion Lecture 14. The Question of the Month How Can Countries Move from Anarchy, War of All Against All, to Cooperation? Security Dilemma."— Presentation transcript:
The Question of the Month How Can Countries Move from Anarchy, War of All Against All, to Cooperation? Security Dilemma (Prisoner’s Dilemma) Emphasizes Difficulties Created by Inability to Make Binding Commitments within the Anarchic State System. –Applies to Relations between nations –Applies to Relations between groups within nations
The Liberal Solution International Institutions Facilitate International Cooperation Cooperation Can Promote Social and Economic Integration Democratic Institutions Promote Non- Violent Dispute Settlement –Respect for Rule of Law –Domestic Constraints on Use of Force
The Interaction Matters A Global Society emerges from continuous social and economic interactions among democratic governments within international institutions. Global Society makes war less likely –by providing fewer reasons to fight –By providing alternative means for conflict resolution.
Liberalism and Life in the West High degree of social and economic integration. All countries are Democratic Interaction among them takes place in highly institutionalized environment A “Liberal Peace?”
Liberalism and Life in the Rest of the World Less social and economic interaction. Non-Democratic or, where Democratic, “new” Democracies Weak International Institutions War.
Are the Liberals Right? Experience of Western Europe Suggests that the Liberals Have a Point. Experience Elsewhere Suggests that Mearsheimer and the Realists Have a Point. Both Right? –Once Created Liberal Orders are Successful –But, it’s Very Hard to Create Liberal Orders.
U.S. Foreign Policy in the 20 th Century Power Transition: Hegemon Can Structure State System However it Likes. U.S. in 20 th Century Has Used its Power to Attempt to Create a Liberal Order in International Politics. Rhetorical Commitment: 14 Points and Atlantic Charter Lay Out Vision of an International System Based on Democracy, International Organization, and Economic Interdependence. Behavior Consistent With These Goals: Creation of United Nations, Creation of GATT/Bretton Woods and Economic Interdependence, Process of Decolonization and Democratization.
Cold War Complicated U.S. Ability to Achieve Some of these Objectives. Cold War Can Be Seen As a Soviet Challenge to America’s Liberal Vision. –The Soviet Union Not Friendly Toward Market-Based Capitalism or Liberal Representative Democracy. –Preferred in their Place Soviet-Style “Command” Economies and “Communist” Regimes. U.S. Diverted From Creating Liberal Order by Perceived Need to Defend Existing Achievements Against Soviet Challenges. –Consistent Support of Democracy and Effectiveness of UN are Victims of this Diversion.
The 21 st Century? Order and Stability in International Politics Requires Structure. –Need to “Solve” the Security Dilemma. –American Hegemony Can Play an Important Role in Solving this Dilemma and Promoting Stability. –Might Be Achieved Through Unilateral Coercive Use of American Military Power (Realism). –Or, Might Be Achieved Through Multilateral Use of American Power to Foster Democracy, Promote Economic Interdependence, and Strengthen International Institutions (Liberalism). Is the U.S. Willing to Use its Power to Support and Maintain a Liberal International State System?