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Working with a Database

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1 Working with a Database
Chapter 9

2 What is a database? A database is an organized collection of related data. A corporation’s employee data A store’s inventory Information about a collection The computer application used for creating a database is a called relational database management system (RDBMS). Microsoft Access

3 Database Terminology A database is organized into a series of tables.
Tables contain related data, such as all of the data about a company’s orders, their customers, or their employees. Within a table, fields store data. Access displays a table in a datasheet, which organizes fields into columns. A record is a set of data for the fields in a table. The records in a datasheet are organized into rows, one record after another. Each table contains a primary key, which is a unique identifier used to ensure that no two records in a table are the same.

4 Opening a Database When Access 2010 is started, New options are displayed in Backstage view. Backstage view includes Quick Commands for saving, opening, and closing a database. Along with the New tab, there are also tabs for displaying Info, Recent, Print, Share, and Help options An Access database is saved with an .accdb extension. To open an existing database, click Open, which displays the Open dialog box. Navigate to the appropriate location, click the database file, and then select Open.

5 Backstage View

6 Microsoft Access 2010 Interface
The File tab displays a menu of commands for opening, saving and printing database objects (Backstage View). Use the Ribbon and the Quick Access Toolbar to select commands and perform actions. The Navigation Pane is used to run, open, and manage the objects of a database. Open objects are displayed in a document window

7 File Tab Document Window

8 Database Design In a database, data is divided into tables to eliminate unnecessary data duplication, or data redundancy. Creating a new database involves determining the database schema, which is a description of the data and the organization of the data into tables.

9 Guided Practice: Gadget Sales – part 1 of 12

10 Working With Tables The Navigation Pane contains a list of tables that have been created within the database. To open a table, double-click the table name. The table opens in the document window. Use the tabs to switch between open tables. Tables are closed by clicking the Close button in the top-right corner of the table

11 Using Forms A form is a database object used for entering records into a table and for viewing existing records. Form names are listed in the Navigation Pane If form names are not listed, click the All Access Objects arrow to display a drop-down menu and click Form To open a form, double-click the form name in the Navigation Pane The form opens in Form View in the document window The data for a field is called an entry. In a form, an entry box is displayed for each field. Record controls are displayed at the bottom of an open form and are used to display a specific record Record controls appear dimmed if they cannot be used at the current time If a table contains no data, then its corresponding form will display an empty record

12 Adding Records Adding records to a database is called populating a database. One way to populate is to type entries into a form. Data entry is best done with a simple form or a split form These forms display all the fields for one record without needing to scroll Because only one record at a time is displayed, data entry is less error-prone To add a new record, click New record at the bottom of a form and then type the data for the new record. Click an entry box to place the insertion point in that box.

13 Guided Practice: Gadget Sales – part 2 of 12

14 Using Datasheet View Datasheet view displays a table in a datasheet where fields are in columns and records in rows. This view is useful for comparing records and is often used when sorting or filtering data. Also useful for printing data because many records can fit on a single sheet of paper. To open a table in Datasheet view, double-click the table name in the Navigation pane.

15 Using Datasheet View Cont’d Records can be added in datasheet view
The asterisk (*) that appears to the left of the row below the last record indicates where a new record will appear. It is not a blank record and it cannot be deleted or removed. The gray box to the left of each record is a record selector. Click a record selector to make a record active.

16 Using Datasheet View Cont’d
The column borders, called boundaries, are used to change the width of a column. Point to the right boundary until the pointer changes and then drag the boundary to the right to increase the width of the column. Drag the boundary line to the left to decrease the width. Double-click the boundary to size the column to exactly fit the data.

17 Using Datasheet View Cont’d
The order in which the fields appear in a datasheet are changed by dragging a selected field to a new location. Point to the bottom border of the field name until the pointer changes and then drag the field to a new position. A heavy dark line indicates the field’s new location.

18 Using Datasheet View Cont’d
Formatting can improve the readability of a datasheet. Use the Home tab to apply formats

19 Sorting Records Placing records in a specific order is called sorting.
Can be sorted either ascending order (lowest to highest or A to Z) or descending order (highest to lowest or Z to A). To sort records based on the data in a field, first click that field name. Home → Ascending or Home → Descending To remove all applied sorts, click Home → Remove Sort Sorting a datasheet does not affect the order the records are displayed in a form.

20 Filtering Records Displaying records based on a specific criteria is called filtering. When a filter is applied, records that do not meet the specified criteria are hidden from view until the filter is removed. To filter records based on the data in a field, click the field to base the filter on and then click Home → Filter to display a menu. Clear the check boxes and then select OK to hide records containing those entries. Select Text Filters to create a custom filter. Text Filter commands include “Does Not Equal,” “Begins With,” and “Contains” To remove a filter, Click Home → Toggle Filter. To remove all filters permanently, click Home → Advanced → Clear All Filters

21 Previewing and Printing A Datasheet
Previewing a datasheet shows what printouts will look like. Select File → Print → Print Preview The document will appear as a printed page and the Print Preview tab is displayed. Portrait: default page layout; shorter edge of paper at top; allows more rows than columns to print on a page Landscape: longer edge of paper is at top; allows more columns than rows to print on a page Margins → Narrow: reduces the amount of white space around the edges of a page; allows more rows and columns to fit on a page

22 Previewing and Printing A Datasheet
One Page: the default view with just one page of the document being displayed at a time. Click Two Pages to view two pages at once. PDF or XPS: exports the table to a PDF or XPS document format; can also export to an e- mail, Excel file, or text file. Print: displays a dialog box for selecting print options before printing the document Close Print Preview: to return to the previous view.

23 Previewing and Printing A Datasheet
If a filter has been applied, only the visible records will be printed Another way to limit the records printed is to first select the records before previewing and then use the Selected Record(s) option in the Print dialog box when printing. To select records, press and hold the CTRL key while clicking the record selector boxes to the left of the records to print.

24 Guided Practice: Gadget Sales – part 3 of 12

25 Updating and Deleting Records
The information in a database usually requires frequent changes. These changes include modifying existing records and deleting outdated records. Modifying a record is called updating. Click the record controls at the bottom of the form until the appropriate record is displayed. Next, double-click the entry to be changed and then type to replace the existing data can be edited. To modify a hyperlink entry, use the Tab key to select the entry and then type a new address. To delete the active record, click Home → Delete → Delete Record. Access displays a warning dialog box before a record is deleted. Select Yes to remove the current record. Select No to retain the record.

26 Guided Practice: Gadget Sales – part 4 of 12

27 Using Copy and Paste To Transfer Data
Businesses often present database information in letters, annual reports, and other documents. Rather than retype entries and records, which could introduce typing errors, data should be copied and pasted directly into the document from the database. To select data for copying, point to the left of a table entry until the pointer changes to a plus sign and then click. Adjacent entries can be selected by dragging. To select an entire record, click the record selector. Drag from one record selector to another to select multiple records.

28 Using Copy and Paste To Transfer Data
To copy and paste selected entries from a table to a Word document, click Home → Copy, display the Word document, place the insertion point where the data is to appear, and then click Home → Paste. Data copied from Access is pasted as a table into a Word document. Click Paste Options in the document to display a list of formatting options for the pasted data. To copy database entries to an Excel worksheet, select entries in a table, click Home Copy, display the worksheet, select the cell to receive the data, and then click Home Paste. The data is pasted starting in the selected cell. Data for a new record often comes from another document, such as a letter in an attachment. When possible, use Copy and Paste to copy data to database entry boxes to avoid typographical errors.

29 Guided Practice: Gadget Sales – part 5 of 12

30 Importing Data A third way to populate a database is by importing data from an existing file. Importing data means that a file created in one application is converted for use by the receiving application. Excel files and text files are two file types supported by Access for importing data. Imported data can be appended, or added, to an existing table Use to create a completely new table Click External Data → Excel or External Data → Text File from the Import & Link group. Select the workbook/file from the displayed dialog box and then use the Import Spreadsheet/Text Wizard dialog boxes to specify the field names, primary key, and table name.

31 Guided Practice: Gadget Sales – part 6 of 12

32 Collecting Data With E-Mail
A fourth way to populate a database is by collecting data through messages. With this approach, an message includes a data entry form for the recipient to fill out and return. Responses can be either collected for processing later or automatically processed. When responses are automatically processed, records are added to the database as the s are received. To collect data, select a table in the Navigation pane and then click External Data → Create E- Mail. Use the wizard dialog boxes to specify the type of form, the fields to added to the form, and how the data is to be processed.

33 Guided Practice: Gadget Sales – part 7 of 12

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