# Core Concepts Part 1: Tools of Geography

## Presentation on theme: "Core Concepts Part 1: Tools of Geography"— Presentation transcript:

Core Concepts Part 1: Tools of Geography

Core Concepts 1.1 The Study of Earth
Geography: Study of human and nonhuman features of Earth, our home Geographers try to answer two basic questions: Where are things located and what are they there?

Directions In order to study Earth, geographers need to measure it and locate points on its surface Geographers use cardinal directions and intermediate directions The cardinal directions are north, east, south, and west Intermediate directions are between the cardinal directions: Southwest and Northeast

Latitude Earth is almost a perfect sphere, which is a round-shaped body Geographers use imaginary lines around Earth to help locate places on the surface The Equator is an imaginary line drawn around Earth between the north and south poles The Equator is at the 0 degree latitude line Latitude: Distance north and south of the equator Degrees: Units that measure angles

Lines of latitude form east-west circles around the globe
They are also called parallels, because they never cross each other The equator divides Earth in half Hemisphere: Each half of Earth The half of Earth north of the equator is known as the Northern Hemisphere while the half of Earth south of the Equator is the Southern Hemisphere

Longitude The Prime Meridian runs north and south between the North and South poles Prime Meridian and other north-south lines measure longitude, which is the distance in degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian The half of Earth east of the Prime Meridian is known as the Eastern Hemisphere while the half of Earth west of the Prime Meridian is the Western Hemisphere

Core Concepts 1.2 Geography’s Five Themes
Geographers use five different themes, or ways of thinking: Location, Place, Human-Environment Interaction, Region, and Movement

Location Geographers begin to study a place by finding where it is, or its location Absolute location: Describes a place’s exact position on Earth and in terms of longitude and latitude Relative location: Location of a place relative to another place

Place Place: Refers to the mix of human and nonhuman features at a given location

Region Geographers use region to group places that have something in common Region: An area with at least one unifying physical or human feature such as climate, landforms, population, or history

Movement Movement: Explores how people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another

Human-Environment Interaction
Human-Environment Interaction: Considers how people affect their environment, or their natural surroundings, and how the environment affects them

Core Concepts 1.3 Ways to Show Earth’s Surface

Geographers Use Multiple Ways to Represent Earth’s Surface
Globes Model of Earth with the same round shape Can show continents and oceans, much as they really are The scale is the only thing different Cannot show many towns and streets Photographs Aerial Photographs: Photographic images of Earth’s surface taken from the air Satellite Images: Pictures of Earth’s surface taken from a satellite in orbit Show Earth in great detail Still hard to show specific features like roads

Geographic Information Systems
GIS: Computer-based systems that store and use information linked to geographic locations Useful to mapmakers and geographers, along with government agencies and businesses Map Projections Flat maps and photos are flat, Earth is round Showing Earth on a flat surface always brings distortion, which is the loss of accuracy in the size or position of objects on a map Projections: Ways to map Earth on a flat surface

Examples of Different Projections
Equal-Area Projection: Shows the correct size of landmasses but the shapes are distorted Robinson Projection: Shows nearly the correct size and shape of most land areas, but the edges have distortions Mercator Projection: Shows correct shape and directions, but not true distance or size

Core Concepts 1.4 Understanding Maps
Maps show many different kinds of information A map’s key, compass rose, locator map, and scale bar are all vital in reading a map

Parts of Map Key: Explains the symbols and shading on a map
Compass Rose: Shows directions Scale Bar: How much space on the map represents a give distance on the land Locator Map: Shows a larger area than the main map. It shows where the area on the map is located within this larger area

Check Yourself…! Look at and study the highway map of Colorado on page 11 and then answer the following questions….. About how many miles is it from Grand Junction to Denver? It is about miles! Which interstate highway connects Denver and Fort Collins? Interstate Highway 25 connects them!

Core Concepts 1.5 Types of Maps
There are three main types of maps: Physical Maps Political Maps Special-Purpose Maps

Types of maps Physical Maps: Show physical, or natural, features
Political Maps: Show political units, such as countries or states Special-Purpose Maps: Show the location or distribution of human or physical features Types of maps