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Chapter 33 Interest Rates and Monetary Policy McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 33 Interest Rates and Monetary Policy McGraw-Hill/Irwin"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 33 Interest Rates and Monetary Policy McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter Objectives The equilibrium interest rate and the market for money Monetary policy How the Fed controls the Federal funds rate How monetary policy affects GDP and the price level Effectiveness of monetary policy and its shortcomings 33-2

3 Interest Rates Price paid for the use of money
Many different interest rates Speak as if only one interest rate Determined by money supply and money demand 33-3

4 Demand for Money Why hold money? Transactions demand, D1
Determined by nominal GDP Independent of the interest rate Asset demand, D2 Money as a store of value Varies inversely with the interest rate Total money demand, Dm 33-4

5 Demand for Money + = (c) Total demand for (a) (b) money, Dm
and supply (a) Transactions demand for money, Dt (b) Asset demand for money, Da 10 7.5 5 2.5 Sm + = Rate of interest, i percent 5 Dt Da Dm 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 250 300 Amount of money demanded (billions of dollars) Amount of money demanded (billions of dollars) Amount of money demanded and supplied (billions of dollars) 33-5

6 Interest Rates Equilibrium interest rate
Changes with shifts in money supply and money demand Interest rates and bond prices Inversely related Bond pays fixed annual interest payment Lower bond price will raise the interest rate 33-6

7 Federal Reserve Balance Sheet
Assets Securities Loans to commercial banks Liabilities Reserves of commercial banks Treasury deposits Federal Reserve Notes outstanding 33-7

8 February 14, 2008 (in Millions)
Federal Reserve Balance Sheet February 14, 2008 (in Millions) Assets Liabilities and Net Worth Securities Loans to Commercial Banks All Other Assets Total $713,369 60,039 111,689 $885,097 Reserves of Commercial Banks Treasury Deposits Federal Reserve Notes (Outstanding) All Other Liabilities and Net Worth Total $ 11,312 4,979 778,937 89,869 $885,097 Source: Federal Reserve Statistical Release, H.4.1, February 14, 2008 33-8

9 Central Banks Selected Nations Australia: Canada: Euro Zone: Japan:
Mexico: Russia Sweden: United Kingdom: United States: Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) Bank of Canada European Central Bank (ECB) Bank of Japan (BOJ) Banco de Mexico (Mex Bank) Central Bank of Russia Sveriges Riksbank Bank of England Federal Reserve System (the “Fed”) (12 Regional Federal Reserve Banks) 33-9

10 Tools of Monetary Policy
Open market operations Buying and selling of government securities (or bonds) Commercial banks and the general public Used to influence the money supply When the Fed sells securities, commercial bank reserves are reduced 33-10

11 Open Market Operations
Fed buys $1,000 bond from a commercial bank New Reserves $1000 $1000 Excess Reserves $5000 Bank System Lending Total Increase in the Money Supply, ($5,000) 33-11

12 Open Market Operations
Fed buys $1,000 bond from the public Check is Deposited New Reserves $1000 $800 Excess Reserves $200 Required Reserves $1000 Initial Checkable Deposit $4000 Bank System Lending Total Increase in the Money Supply, ($5000) 33-12

13 Tools of Monetary Policy
The reserve ratio Changes the money multiplier The discount rate The Fed as lender of last resort Short term loans Term auction facility Introduced December 2007 Banks bid for the right to borrow reserves 33-13

14 Tools of Monetary Policy
Open market operations most important Reserve ratio last changed 1992 Discount rate was a passive tool Term auction facility is new Guaranteed amount lent by the Fed Anonymous 33-14

15 The Federal Funds Rate Rate charged by banks on overnight loans
Targeted by the Federal Reserve FOMC conducts open market operations to achieve the target Demand curve for Federal funds Supply curve for Federal funds 33-15

16 The Federal Funds Rate Using Open Market Operations Sf3 Sf1 Sf2 Df Qf3
4.5 Sf3 4.0 Sf1 Federal Funds Rate, Percent 3.5 Sf2 Df Qf3 Qf1 Qf2 Quantity of Reserves 33-16

17 Monetary Policy Expansionary monetary policy
Economy faces a recession Lower target for federal funds rate Fed buys securities Expanded money supply Downward pressure on other interest rates Contractionary monetary policy 33-17

18 Taylor Rule Rule of thumb for tracking actual monetary policy
Fed has 2% target inflation rate If real GDP = potential GDP and inflation is 2% then target federal funds rate is 4% Target varies as inflation and real GDP vary 33-18

19 Monetary Policy Affect on real GDP and price level Cause-effect chain
Market for money Investment and the interest rate Investment and aggregate demand Real GDP and prices Expansionary monetary policy Restrictive monetary policy 33-19

20 Monetary Policy and GDP
Equilibrium real GDP and the Price level (a) The market for money (b) Investment demand Rate of Interest, i (Percent) Amount of money demanded and supplied (billions of dollars) Sm1 Sm2 Sm3 Amount of investment (billions of dollars) Price Level Real GDP (billions of dollars) AS 10 8 6 P3 AD3 I=$25 P2 AD2 I=$20 Dm ID AD1 I=$15 $125 $150 $175 $15 $20 $25 Q1 Qf Q3 33-20

21 Expansionary Monetary Policy
Problem: unemployment and recession CAUSE-EFFECT CHAIN Fed buys bonds, lowers reserve ratio, lowers the discount rate, or increases reserve auctions Excess reserves increase Federal funds rate falls Money supply rises Interest rate falls Investment spending increases Aggregate demand increases Real GDP rises 33-21

22 Restrictive Monetary Policy
Problem: inflation CAUSE-EFFECT CHAIN Fed sells bonds, increases reserve ratio, increases the discount rate, or decreases reserve auctions Excess reserves decrease Federal funds rate rises Money supply falls Interest rate rises Investment spending decreases Aggregate demand decreases Inflation declines 33-22

23 Monetary Policy Advantages over fiscal policy
Speed and flexibility Isolation from political pressure Recent U.S. monetary policy Problems and complications Recognition lag Operational lag Cyclical asymmetry 33-23

24 The Big Picture Input Resources With Prices Investment (Ig)
Consumption (Ca) Investment (Ig) Aggregate Supply Levels of Output, Employment, Income, and Prices Aggregate Demand Productivity Sources Net Export Spending (Xn) Legal- Institutional Environment Government Spending (G) 33-24

25 The Mortgage Debt Crisis
Home mortgage default 2007 Banks write off bad loans Reserves reduced Fed as lender of last resort Term auction facility Fed lowered federal funds rate Mortgage backed securities as a new innovation Bad incentives 33-25

26 Key Terms monetary policy interest transactions demand asset demand
total demand for money open-market operations reserve ratio discount rate term auction facility Federal funds rate expansionary monetary policy prime interest rate restrictive monetary policy Taylor rule cyclical asymmetry mortgage debt crisis 33-26

27 Next Chapter Preview… Financial Economics 33-27

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