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Grammar Appositive Phrases

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar Appositive Phrases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar Appositive Phrases
Verbals - Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases Grammar

2 Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that replaces a noun that is close to it in a sentence. It is generally set off by commas, but no commas are used if the sentence needs the appositive to make 100% sense (essential).

3 Appositive Examples The author O. Henry wrote “One Thousand Dollars.” O. Henry is an essential appositive and uses no comma. O. Henry, a former convict, settled in New York The appositive a former convict is NOT essential to the meaning of the sentence and IS set off by commas.

4 Appositive Examples The successful singer Michael Jackson died in 2008. Michael Jackson - Essential Michael Jackson the successful singer died in 2008. Michael Jackson, the successful singer, died in the successful singer is non-essential.

5 Verbs that act as Nouns and Adjectives

6 Participial Phrases A participle is a verb form acting as an adjective. They usually end in –ing or ed. Participial Phrases are always used as adjective phrases that modify nouns or pronouns. Comma rules are similar to appositives and the participle should be close to the word it modifies.

7 Participial Phrase Examples
Sitting in his office, the President called the Vice-President. Jen, waving good-bye, drove away.

8 Gerund Phrase A Gerund is a verb that ends in –ing and functions as a noun. A Gerund Phrase consists of the gerund and all of its modifiers. Remember that Present Participles end in –ing also, but they act as adjectives.

9 Gerund Phrase Examples
Driving a car takes concentration. Driving a car – Gerund Phrase Paul finished painting the ceiling. painting the ceiling – Gerund Phrase A dog, wearing one of these collars, is protected against fleas. wearing one of these collars – Participial Phrase – acts as an adjective

10 Infinitive Phrase An Infinitive Phrase is a Verbal that begins with the word to and is followed by a verb and all of it’s modifiers. It functions as a Noun, Adjective, or an Adverb. Do not confuse Infinitive Phrases and Prepositional Phrases. Prepositional Phrases consist of the word to followed by a noun.

11 Infinitive Phrase Examples
He helped to build the roof. to build the roof – Noun I need a book to read on vacation. to read on vacation – Adjective, book The officer returned to help the inspector. To help the inspector – Adverb, returned

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