Presentation on theme: "Verbals Verbals are words that seem to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a verb. Three forms: Participles Infinitives Gerunds."— Presentation transcript:
1 VerbalsVerbals are words that seem to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a verb.Three forms:ParticiplesInfinitivesGerunds
2 ParticiplesA participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.Ex: The rapidly developing storm kept the small boats in the port.Ex: I found her crying.
3 ParticiplesThere are two basic kinds of participles: present participle and past participle.Present participles describe a present condition and end in –ing.Ex: We watched the puppies playing.Ex: The running dog chased the fluttering leaf.
4 ParticiplesPast participles describe something that has happened and may end in a variety of endings (see W449).Ex: The puppies, exhausted, collapsed.Ex: The confused student failed the test.Ex: The shaken soda exploded when opened.
5 Participles In all, there are five tenses for participles: Present activePresent passivePastPresent perfectPast perfect
6 Participles Present active – Seeing the robbery, we called the police. Present passive – After being seen by the police, the thief fled.Past – The thief, seen by the police, fled.Present perfect active – Having seen the robbery, we were dismayed.Present perfect passive – Having been seen, the thief surrendered.
7 ParticiplesA participial phrase is a phrase containing a participle and any complements or modifiers it may have.Ex: Removing his coat, Jack sat in the chair.Ex: We saw Jeff playing in the game.Ex: Spread with white linen, the table gleamed.
8 GerundsA gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun in either the nominative or objective case.Nominative case forms:Ex: Walking is healthful exercise. [subject]Ex: My father’s occupation is farming. [PN]
9 Gerunds Objective case forms: Ex: They do not appreciate my singing. [DO]Ex: Mr. Feeley gave the writing high praise. [IO]Ex: He makes money in the summer by cutting lawns. [OP]Ex: The writing’s clarity impressed the committee. [Possessive]
10 GerundsA gerund phrase is a phrase consisting of a gerund and any complements or modifiers it may have.Like single word gerunds, gerund phrases have a variety of uses.Ex: Giving out the candy is my favorite activity at Halloween. [Subject]
11 Gerunds My greatest thrill was meeting Cal Ripken. [PN] My brother enjoys working as a lifeguard. [DO]We were punished for talking in the hall. [OP]
12 Infinitives An infinitive is a verb form, usually preceded by to. Infinitive can be used as noun (nominative or objective cases), adjectives, or adverbs.
13 InfinitivesMost often used as a noun in either the nominative or objective case.Ex: To leave would be rude. [Subject]Ex: Our goal is to beat Calvert Hall. [PN]Ex: No one wants to stay. [DO]Ex: In order to make good grades, one must study properly. [OP]There is no possessive or indirect object form.
14 Infinitives Infinitives can also be used as modifiers. Ex: She is the candidate to watch. [adjective modifying candidate]Ex: Some Dons lack the will to resist temptation on weekends.Ex: We came to cheer the team. [adverb modifying the verb came]Ex: We run to improve our conditioning.
15 Infinitives Be sure to recognize an infinitive. Do not confuse the infinitive, a verbal of which to is a part, with a prepositional phrase beginning with to, which consists of to plus a noun or pronoun.Ex: to go; to sleep [infinitives]Ex: to them; to bed [prep. phrases]
16 InfinitivesThe word to, called the sign of the infinitive, is sometimes omitted.Ex: The comedian made him [to] laugh.Ex: Help me [to] clean the kitchen.
17 InfinitivesAn infinitive phrase may consist of an infinitive and any complements or modifiers.Ex: They promised to return soon. [soon is an adverb modifying the infinitive to return]Ex: I saved enough money to buy a car. [car is the complement of the infinitive to buy]
18 InfinitivesLike infinitives alone, infinitive phrases can be used as nouns and modifiers.Ex: To succeed in life is every man’s goal. [subject]Ex: His plan is to go to college. [PN]Ex: We tried to reason with him. [object]Ex: There must be a way to solve this problem. [adjective]
19 Infinitives Like other parts of speech, infinitives have tenses: Present activePresent passivePresent perfect activePresent perfect passive
20 InfinitivesUse the present infinitive (to go, to see, etc.) to express action following another action.Ex: He wanted to invite all the freshmen. [present infinitive should be used because the desire want preceded the action to invite]Ex: He wanted to be seen at the mixer with all his friends.
21 InfinitivesUse the perfect infinitive (to have gone, to have seen, etc.) to express action before another action.Ex: We are happy to have met you. [the action expressed by the perfect infinitive to have met came before the time of the other verb, are]Ex: We were to have been seen by the President, but we were too late.