Presentation on theme: "Greek Nouns: Part 2 O XANQIAS (b). Cases Each noun changes form depending on how it is used in the sentence – this is known as case The case is identified."— Presentation transcript:
Cases Each noun changes form depending on how it is used in the sentence – this is known as case The case is identified by the ending of the noun; the case may also be identified by the article that appears in front of the noun Each noun belongs to a family of similar nouns that share a common vowel; so far we’ve had the 1 st Declension and the 2 nd Declension
The Cases - Nominative The nominative case is used for subjects – the noun that does the action; it is also used for predicative nominatives – the noun that follows the verb is (or am, was, were, etc.) Dicaeopolis drives the cattle. The cattle work. She is a girl. My friends were Indians. Nominatives Predicate Nominatives
The Cases - Genitive The genitive case is used to show ownership or that an object is made of some material; it is also used after certain prepositions like “out of” Xanthias’ big toe hurts. (notice the apostrophe) The big toe of Xanthias hurts. This house of mudbrick won’t last. She ran out of the house.
The Cases - Dative The dative case is used for indirect objects – those who don’t receive the action of the verb directly, but still benefit from it; dative is also used with certain prepositions like “in” The slave gave the corn to Dicaeopolis. The farmer threw the rock to the slave. She works in the field. He sleeps in the house.
The Cases - Accusative The accusative is used for the direct object of the verb’s action; accusative is also used with certain prepositions like “toward” The slave hit him with a rock. The oxen plow the fields. Dicaeopolis picks up the plow. The slave ran toward the cliff. The farmer went to the house.
The Cases - Vocative Vocative is used to directly address a person or object; it is usually preceded by ð which does not have to be translated Slave, come here! Thomas, where are you? O rock, how you have hurt my toe!
Some Notes Notice how the endings of the articles tend to match the endings of the cases (most of the time, anyway) Notice that in the NEUTER nouns, the nominative and the accusative are the exact same form (this is true for ALL NEUTERS)