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Ch. 14 Acids & Bases.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 14 Acids & Bases."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 14 Acids & Bases

2 What's An Acid? An acid is any substance that increases the H+ ion concentration in water. This causes the pH to drop They taste sour. They react with metals to make H2 gas These are all the same thing: H+  H3O+  proton


4 The Six Strong Acids Dissociate completely in H2O
HCl  H+ + Cl- (HCl is an Acid) Ex: HCl – Hydrochloric Acid HBr – Hydrobromic Acid HI – Hydriodic Acid H2SO4 – Sulfuric Acid HNO3 – Nitric Acid HClO4 – Perchloric Acid

5 Be Careful with Strong Acids

6 Weak Acids These don’t completely dissociate in water.
Here is acetic acid, the one in vinegar: HC2H3O2(aq)  H+ (aq) + C2H3O2-(aq) about 99% about 1%

7 Some Strong and Weak Acids

8 What’s a Base? Any substance that makes lots of hydroxide ions, OH-, in water. They decrease the H+ ion concentration in water and increase the pH. They taste bitter (ie: soap) and feel slippery

9 Strong Bases They completely dissociate in water:
NaOH  Na+ + OH- NaOH – Sodium Hydroxide KOH – Potassium Hydroxide LiOH – Lithium Hydroxide Ba(OH)2 – Barium Hydroxide


11 Be Careful with Strong Bases

12 Weak Bases Don’t completely dissociate in water.
Only about 1% to 5% is dissociated. Here is ammonia, a weak base: NH3 + H2O  NH OH-

13 Acids & Bases

14 Acid-Base Definitions
Type Acid Base Arrhenius H+ or H3O+ Producer OH- Producer Bronsted-Lowery Proton (H+) Donor Proton (H+) Acceptor Lewis Electron-Pair Acceptor Electron-Pair Donor

15 Acid Neutral Base

16 Neutralization Reactions
This is when you mix an acid with a base. The result is always the same: Acid + Base  Water + a Salt The salt can be any number of ionic salts, not just NaCl.

17 Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide. Write the reaction:
HCl + NaOH  H2O + NaCl

18 Before After

19 Another of Neutralization:
Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide. Write and balance the reaction. H2SO4 + 2KOH  2H2O + K2SO4

20 A Break & a Challenge: Say the color, not the word.

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