Presentation on theme: "The Indian Problem Continues… (1850-1890) They Just Won’t Leave!"— Presentation transcript:
The Indian Problem Continues… (1850-1890) They Just Won’t Leave!
The Plains Indians Problem Things Aren’t Improving
U. S. Indian Policies 1.Move or Die! (1776 - 1850) 2.Get on a Reservation! (1850 - 1900) 3.Assimilate! (Be White!) (1900 - 1920) 4.You are on your own…Sort of! (1920s to Present) The Catch: None of these really work smoothly
Problems with Indian/US Relations Westward Expansion of US Culture Clash Racism Stereotyping Reservations Violence Broken Promises (treaties)
Reservations Sand Creek Massacre (11/1864) Areas set aside for Native Americans to live. Made hunting buffalo almost impossible Caused many conflicts Cheyenne refused to live on reservations US troops kill 200 men, women, and children in Colorado
Sand Creek Massacre - US vs. Cheyenne in Colorado - 11/1864
“The only good Indian is a dead Indian.” -Philip Sheridan
Genocide - The intentional killing of a particular racial, cultural, or political group The phrase, “The only good Indian is a dead Indian,” came from U.S. General Philip Sheridan when a Comanche named Tosawi came to him to sign a treaty after a U.S. victory over his tribe. “Toswai, Good Indian,” said the Native American leader. Sheridan replied, ”The only good Indians I ever saw were dead.” The phrase has changed slightly over time.
Battle of Little Big Horn Sioux Indians forced to live on a reservation in the Black Hills of the Dakota Terr. US Troops under George Custer find gold there US tells Sioux to sell their reservation Sioux leader, Sitting Bull, refuses Custer refuses back up, and attacks All 264 US troops, including Custer, were killed Last major Native American victory out west
Massacre at Wounded Knee Sioux are again refusing to live on reservations after Sitting Bull was killed by reservation police US Army finds Sioux camp at Wounded Knee in South Dakota 150 Indians killed Last major battle on the plains
The Dawes Act or “With friends like this, who needs enemies?”
Dawes Act (1887) Many people were looking for better ways to deal with NA’s Seeks to get NA’s to adopt white ways Reservation lands to be split up for private ownership (160 acres/family for farming, 40 for normal purposes) Ended up taking 2/3’s of reservation lands 90,000 NA’s are landless Dawes Act was a failure - NA’s did not want a “white” culture - humiliated
The Dawes Act leads to Indian Land being sold - Remember that this is supposed to be helping the Indians
Indian Schools Another bright idea - “Hey - lets make Indians be like white people” Forced assimilation (teaching NA children only white culture) Most famous was Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania Kids were taken from their parents, had their hair cut, taught English, learned history from “white” perspective, and learned “white customs and traditions Punished for speaking native languages
“History is the propaganda of the victors.” Tell the story of one event from today’s class from the Native American point of view. Possible topics: Reservations Little Big Horn/Custer’s Last Stand Sand Creek Massacre Dawes Act Indian Schools