n-Ach: Need for achievement Desire to overcome obstacles and to meet high standards of excellence David McClelland (yellow sheet) argues that if you have HIGH n-Ach, you will shoot for the third or fourth bucket Why?
LOW n-Ach: Select “sure” things AND/OR impossible goals HIGH n-Ach: Avoid goals that are too easy, but also know limits Very INTRINSICALLY motivated Ask yourself: Why are you in the class? Contributes to the four types of motivation discussed in this chapter
All processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities Types of motivation: Hunger Sexual Social Work
Why are we motivated to behave a certain way? Example: Are you motivated to consume a Bacon-ator when you are starving in the same way you are motivated to do well in high school and receive college scholarships?
Drive Reduction Theory What is it? Motivation comes from our desires to reduce internal drives by meeting our needs Physiological needs Food, water, sleep, etc. Internal drives Hunger, thirst, exhaustion, etc.
Optimum Arousal Theory What is it? People feel motivated to maintain a certain level of arousal, despite a lack of physical drives to do so Examples: Riding a roller coaster, seeing people after being along all day, attending a concert
Yerkes-Dodson Law (aka “The Inverted U”) Low and high levels of arousal produce lower performance than moderate arousal
Incentive Theory What is it? Motivation is the combination of factors that push us towards something or pull us away from pursuing something Examples Detentions and extra credit are used to motivate behavior Runners run to either beat their own times or to beat other runners
Instinct Theory What is it? Automatic innate responses to certain environmental experiences Examples Geese fly south for the winter (response) when the weather becomes cold (environment) Babies search for food (response) when something touches their face (environment)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs What is it? Abraham Maslow’s argument that we are motivated to achieve certain basic needs before pursuing higher psychological needs Example People do not want to work on their marriage problems when they are starving and homeless