2 Historical Foundations Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth.Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields.Discuss recent developments in physical education, exercise science, and sport.Draw implications from history of our fields for the future of physical education, exercise science, and sport
3 Sport History Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s and early 1970s.“… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and often intersecting foci, including exercise, the body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical recreations, health, and leisure.” (Struna)How has the past shaped sport and its experiences today?1973: North American Society for Sport History held its first meeting.
4 Sample Areas of Study...How did urbanization influence the development of sports in America?How did the sports activities of Native Americans influence the recreational pursuits of the early colonists?How have Greek ideals influences the development of sportsmanship?How did segregation impact sports opportunities for blacks?What factors influenced the inclusion of physical education in the school curriculum?
5 Greece “Golden Age” of physical education and sport Unity of the mind, body and spirit“Body beautiful”Arete – the pursuit of excellenceVital part of the education of every Greek boyNational festivalsOlympic Games
6 Rome Exercise for health and military purposes. Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after the conquest of Greece but were not popularRome did not believe in the “body beautiful”Preferred to be spectators rather than participantsPreferred professionalism to amateurism.Exciting “blood sports”: gladiatorial combats and chariot races. “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of spectators.
7 GermanyPeriod of nationalism - focus on development of strong citizens through school and community programs of physical educationPhysical education should be included in the school curriculum – programs emphasizes the development of strengthJahn ( ) – Turnverein movement to mold youth into strong, hardy citizens capable of overthrowing foreign control
8 Sweden Scientific study of physical education Use anatomy and physiology to study the effects of physical education on the bodyExercises use Swedish apparatus - Per Ling ( )Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific individual needs3 Types: Educational gymnastics, military gymnastics, and medical gymnasticsTeachers of physical education must have foundational knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human body.
9 Great Britain Home of outdoor sports Maclaren (1920-1884) Eager to make physical training a science; a system that was adopted by the British ArmyHealth is more important than strengthExercise adapted to the individualPhysical education essential in school curriculumMuscular ChristianitySport contributes to the development of moral characterReconciles sport and religion
10 PE in the U.S. Influenced by European ideals Systems of gymnastics (exercises)Philosophies of physical educationGrowth of influence of Ancient Asian culturesYogaMartial artsRelationships between the mind, body, and spirit
11 Colonial Period ( )Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival.Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands.Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon.Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education.2
12 National Period (1784-1861) Growth of private schools for females Introduction of German gymnastics to schools1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew race between Harvard and Yale.Catherine Beecher ( )Calisthenics performed to musicOne of the first to advocate for daily physical educationInvention of baseballHorseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on sport events popular3
13 Civil War Period until 1900Turnverein societies continue to grow and include both girls and boysDio LewisPrograms for the “weak and feeble” in societyTraining school for teachers in BostonInclusion of gymnastic programs in the schoolsNissen - Swedish Movement Cure grows in popularity and recognized for its inherent medical valuesYMCA established; international training school at Springfield College4
14 Civil War Period until 1900 Growth of American sport in popularity TennisGolfBowlingBasketball (Naismith)Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic Association (AAU)Revival of Olympics in AthensColleges and universities develop departments and expand programs
15 Civil War Period until 1900 Expansion of intercollegiate athletics Abuses raise concernsEstablishment of governing bodiesEmphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis of PE, diagnosis and prescription of activityOrganized PE programs in elementary and secondary schoolsFounding of the forerunner of AAHPERD“Battle of the Systems”6
16 Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s) Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girlsGrowth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programsIncreased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our societyPlayground movementHigher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation)NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics8
17 World War I ( )Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces .After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service).Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states.10
18 Golden Twenties ( )Move away from formal systems of gymnastics toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and leisure time.“New” physical education emphasized contribution to the total development of the individual; “education through the physical” vs. “education of the physical”.Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to increasing professionalism, public entertainment, and commercialization.Women’s programs increase staff, activities, required participation, and facilities.11
19 Depression Years ( )Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs.Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed.Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women’s programs.Charles McCloy ( ) – advocated “education of the physical” and stressed the importance documenting results and measuring progress of using scientific data12
20 Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970) Impact of WW II physical training programsPhysical fitness movementPresident’s Council on Physical Fitness and SportsAthleticsIncrease opportunities for girls and womenIncreased interest in lifetime sportsSport programs below high school level increaseIncreased number of intramural programs13
21 Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970) Professional preparationColleges and universities increase programs for teachersAmerican College of Sports Medicine (1954)National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950)Programs for individuals with disabilitiesSpecial Olympics (1968)Research grows in importance and becomes increasingly specialized14
22 Significant Recent Developments Emergence of subdisciplinesDisease prevention and health promotionHealthy PeopleObjectives for the NationSurgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and HealthHealthy People 2000Healthy People 2010Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and women, and people with disabilitiesIncreased technology15
23 School Physical Education Recognition of the critical role school PE in achieving national health goalsFitness status and physical activity of children and youth is a concernCongressional support for high-quality, daily physical educationDaily PE declines from 42% in 1991 to 28% in 2003.Only one state, Illinois, requires daily PE for all students, K-12National Content Standards offer a national frameworkEmergence of new curricular models
24 Physical Fitness and Participation in Physical Activity Expansion of the fitness movement and involvement in physical activityShift from performance- to health-related fitness to an emphasis on moderate-intensity physical activityPhysical inactivity recognized as a major health problem
25 The Growth of SportPhenomenal growth of participation in sports at all levelsYouth sports involve more than 25 million childrenInterscholastic sports involve more than 6 million boys and girlsTrend toward early specialization
26 The Growth of SportIntercollegiate sports involves nearly 400,000 athletesGrowth of sport as “big business” in some institutionsGrowth of recreational sport leagues and amateur sports for adults of all agesProfessional sports continue to expand including professional leagues for women
27 Girls and Women in Sport Rapid growth since the passage of Title IX in 1972Changes in governance of intercollegiate sportsChallenges to Title IXChanges in physical education classes following passage of Title IX
28 Programs for Individuals with Disabilities Federal LegislationPL Section 504 of the Rehabilitation ActPL Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975Amateur Sports Act of 1978PL Americans with Disabilities ActParalympics17
29 Olympics Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896 Centennial Olympics celebrated in Atlanta in 1996Politicization of the Olympic GamesEvolving definitions of amateurism“Fairness” issues in the OlympicsAddition of non-traditional sportsCommercialization of the Olympics
30 Technology Computer technology and sophisticated research equipment Has led to record-breaking achievements for elite athletes in nearly all sportsFacility improvementFitness tests data available in schools with addition of heart rate monitors