Presentation on theme: "Parole: Early Release and Reentry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Parole: Early Release and Reentry Chapter 8Parole:Early Release and Reentry
2 ParoleThe conditional release of a prisoner, prior to completion of the imposed sentence, under the supervision of a parole officerDiscretionary Release: Early release based on the paroling authority’s assessment of eligibilityMandatory Release: Early release after a time period specified by lawPardon: An executive act that removes both punishment and guiltReprieve: An executive act that reduces the severity of punishment but the person remains guilty
3 History Of ParoleRooted in 18th-century English penal practice of indentured servitudeFrom 1775 through 1856 English offenders were sent to AustraliaNorfolk IslandCaptain Alexander Maconochie developed the “ticket-of-leave” systemCrofton’s conditional release system, 1854Dr. S.G. Howe of Boston first coined the term parole in 1846
4 Development Of American Parole First parole legislation: Massachusetts, 1837First parole program implemented at New York’s Elmira Reformatory, late 1870sZebulon BrockwayIn 1931, the Wickersham Commission listed four “essential elements” of a good parole programIn the 1970s, research found that prison rehabilitation programs had few positive benefitsPresently, there is increasing support for the abolition of parole while others advocate reform
5 The Wickersham Commission The Commission’s 1931 report cited four “essential elements” of good parole systems:Indeterminate sentencing lawsQuality release preparationParole officer’s familiarization with offender’s home and environmental conditions before offender’s releaseSufficient staffing levels
6 ReentryThe process of transition that offenders make from prison or jail to the communityEstimates are that nearly 2,000 offenders leave prison every day and 2 out of every 3 are rearrested within 3 years of their releasePresident Bush’s Second Chance Act of 2008Council of State Governments’ The Report of the Re-Entry Policy CouncilReentry issues for womenParole eligibility date - The earliest date on which an inmate might be paroled
7 Granting ParoleParoling authority - A person or correctional agency (often called a parole board or parole commission) that has the authority to grant parole, revoke parole, and discharge from paroleMost important factors in the decision to grant or deny parole are the nature of the offense and the prior criminal recordSalient factor score - Scale developed from a risk-screening instrument used to predict parole outcome
8 Types Of ParoleMandatory Parole - requires the correctional authority to grant parole after the inmate serves a specific period of time, as required by lawOccurs in jurisdictions using determinate sentencingMost commonly used methodDiscretionary Parole – the decision to parole rests with a parole board or parole commission who reviews a case to determine whether they believe the prisoner is ready to be returned to the communityOccurs in jurisdictions using indeterminate sentencing
9 Characteristics of Parolees Parolee – A person who is conditionally released from prison to community supervisionOn January 1, 2006, 824,365 adults were on parole in the U.S.Women make up 12% of paroleesTypically white, non-Hispanic male on mandatory parole and under active parole supervision for more than one yearMedian age of a parolee is 34 with an 11th grade education
10 Does Parole Work?45 percent of the people discharged from parole in 2008 completed the terms of their community supervision without returning to prison or jail or absconding.First-time mandatory parole releases had a higher success rate than did first-time discretionary parole board releases but researchers found the opposite for re –releases.
11 Does Parole Work? - Continued Of the nearly 482,180 parolees discharged from supervision in 2007, 183,253 (38 percent) were returned to prison because of either a technical violation (nearly three-quarters) or a new offense (one-quarter). Parole failures account for a growing proportion of all new prison admissions.
12 Can Parolees Vote?5.3 million people in the U.S. have lost their right to vote as a result of a felony conviction (disenfranchisement)Only Maine and Vermont do not place any restrictions on the rights of felons (including prisoners) to vote
13 Arguments for and against felon disenfranchisement As a matter of principle because offender committed a felonyStates have the right to deny as added punishmentSends a message about respect for the law, and acts as a deterrent to crimeFelons cannot be trusted to make politically informed decisions
14 Arguments for and against felon disenfranchisement - Continued Voting is not a privilege but a rightSuch laws are unfair to minorities who are treated unfairly by the criminal justice systemNot an effective form of punishment; most felons did not vote before their incarcerationRemoving the right to vote is inconsistent with reentryBy taking this right from one group, which group is next?
15 Reentry CourtManages the return to the community of individuals released from prisonU.S. Department of Justice proposes reentry courts have six core elements:Assessment and planningActive judicial oversightCase management of support servicesAccountability to the communityGraduated sanctionsRewarding success
16 Community Partnership Councils All sectors of society meet with parole staff to:learn about parole operations and issuesshare what they learned with their communitiesgenerate positive publicity for paroleA survey of Community Partnership Council parole officers in Texas reported the need for more treatment resources and job assistance from the community to help their parolees. They said this need may be served by Community Partnership Councils.
17 Reintegration of Offenders Challenges facing parolees are employment readiness, substance abuse treatment, housing, and health careFour successful programs across the U.S. that offer life skills training and job preparation before inmates are released and job placement, social support, and follow-up assistance after releaseChicago’s Safer FoundationCenter for Employment OpportunitiesReintegration of OffendersCorrections Clearinghouse
18 Reintegration Involving Victims Victims can assist parole boards by providing relevant information, offering their experience and expertise, and encouraging offender accountability.
19 Abolition of Discretionary Parole Board Release Opposition to parole in the 1930s resurfaced again in the 1970s with the introduction of “just deserts.”Sixteen states and the federal government have abolished discretionary parole board release from prison by a parole board for all offenders.Four states have abolished discretionary parole release for certain violent offenses or other crimes against a person.Reasons for abolition include: wide disparity, appears tough on crime, board’s closed decision-making, and rhetoric that parole was the cause of the rising crime problem
20 Prisoner Reentry and Community Policing The fourfold increase in the number of persons being released each year from state and federal prisons over the past two decadesIn spite of all the efforts being made at prisoner reform, offenders are still leaving prison unprepared for successful reentryMake contact with former prisoners part of everyday law enforcement business
21 Community-Focused Parole A process of engaging the community so the community engages parolehave a mission statement the community understandsmake parole work more visiblebuild partnerships