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Chapter 9 Motivation PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook © Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives After studying the chapter, you should be able to:Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it. Describe from the perspectives of expectancy theory and equity theory what managers should do to have a highly motivated workforce. Explain how goals and needs motivate people and what kinds of goals are especially likely to result in high performance. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives (cont’d)Identify the motivation lessons that managers can learn from operant conditioning theory and social learning theory. Explain why and how managers can use pay as a major motivation tool. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
The Nature of MotivationThe psychological forces acting on an individual that determine: Direction—possible behaviors the individual could engage in. Effort—how hard the individual will work. Persistence—whether the individual will keep trying or give up. Explains why people behave the way they do in organizations. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
The Nature of Motivation (cont’d)Intrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed for its own sake. The source of the motivation that comes from actually engaging in the behavior. The sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
The Nature of Motivation (cont’d)Extrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Sources of Motivation Personal Characteristics Nature of the JobIndividual Motivation Nature of the Organization © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Outcomes and Inputs Outcome InputAnything a person gets from a job or an organization: Pay, job security, autonomy, accomplishment. Input Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization: Time, effort, skills, knowledge, work behaviors. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
The Motivation Equation© Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Figure 9.1
Expectancy Theory Motivation will be high when workers believe:High levels of effort will lead to high performance. High performance will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes. Major Factors of Motivation Expectancy—the belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance. Instrumentality—the belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomes. Valence—how desirable each of the available outcomes from the job is to a person. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence© Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Figure 9.2
Expectancy Theory in PracticeExpectancy: Effort will result in a level of performance. Employees will work work hard if they believe they can attain high performance—organizations must provide the resources that support performance. Instrumentality: Performance leads to outcomes. Workers are only motivated if they think performance leads to an outcome—managers must link performance to outcomes. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Expectancy Theory in PracticeValence: How desirable an outcome is to a person. Workers have preferences for outcomes—managers must determine which outcomes are valued. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Expectancy and MotivationMotivation is highest when expectancy, instrumentality, and valence levels are high. If one of the values is low, motivation will be low: Workers do not believe they can perform well. Workers do not believe that performance and rewards are closely linked. Workers do not value the rewards offered for performance. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Expectancy Theory Figure 9.3© Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Figure 9.3
Need Theories Need Need TheoriesA requirement for survival and well-being. Need Theories Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs. Basis premise is that people are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs. Managers must determine what needs a worker wants satisfied and ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsSelf- actualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Promotions and recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items Needs Description Examples Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Table 9.1
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene TheoryFocuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction. Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself—autonomy, responsibility, interesting work. Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the work—comfortable work environment, pay, job security. Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
McClelland’s Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and PowerNeed for Achievement A strong need to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence. Need for Affiliation A concern for good interpersonal relations, being liked, and getting along. Need for Power A desire to control or influence others. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Adam’s Equity Theory Focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs. A relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person (referent) perceived as similar to oneself. Equity exists when a person perceives that their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the referent’s ratio. If the referent receives more outcomes, they should also give more inputs to achieve equity. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Outcomes < Outcomes Outcomes > OutcomesEquity Theory Condition Person Referent Example Equity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Worker contributes more inputs but also gets more outputs than referent Underpayment Outcomes < Outcomes gets the same outputs as referent Overpayment Outcomes > Outcomes same inputs but also © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Table 9.2
Equity Theory (cont’d)Inequity exists when worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent. Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. Workers feel they are not getting the outcomes they should for their inputs. Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent. Workers feel they are getting more outcomes than they should for their inputs. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Equity Theory (cont’d)Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equity. In underpayment, workers may reduce input levels to correct (rebalance) the ratio or seek a raise. In overpayment, workers may change the referent person and readjust their ratio perception. If inequity persists, workers will often choose leave the organization. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Goal Setting Theory Focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and explaining why goals have these effects. Considers how managers can ensure that workers focus their inputs (efforts) in the direction of high performance and the achievement of organizational goals. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Goal Setting Theory (cont’d)What a person is trying to accomplish. Characteristics of Motivating Goals Specific and not vague in providing direction Difficult but not impossible to attain Accepted and committed to by workers Feedback on goal attainment is important. Goals point out what is important to the firm. Workers should be encouraged to develop action plans to attain goals. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Learning Theories Theories that focus on increasing motivation and performance by linking outcomes to performance and the attainment of goals. Learning A relatively permanent change in person’s knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Operant Conditioning TheoryPeople learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences. Linking specific behaviors to the attainment of specific outcomes can motivate high performance and prevent behaviors that detract from organizational effectiveness. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Operant Conditioning ToolsPositive Reinforcement Getting desired outcomes for performing needed work behaviors. Positive reinforcers: pay, praises, or promotions. Negative Reinforcement Eliminating undesired outcomes once the desired behavior occurs. Negative reinforcers: criticisms, pay cuts, suspension. Is not the same as punishment. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Operant Conditioning Tools (cont’d)Extinction Curtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is reinforcing it. Behavior is not rewarded and over time, the worker stops performing it. Punishment Administering an undesired/negative consequence to immediately stop a dysfunctional behavior. Manager administers an undesired consequence to worker (verbal reprimand, demotion, pay cut). © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Administering PunishmentDownplay the emotional element involved in punishment. Punish the behavior, not the person. Punish behaviors as soon as possible after they occur. Swift punishment increases the connection between punishment and behavior. Avoid punishing someone in front of others. People learn for punishment of others. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Social Learning TheoryA theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people’s thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people’s behavior. Vicarious Learning (Observational Learning) When a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be rewarded. People are motivated to imitate models who are highly competent, expert, receive attractive reinforcers, and are friendly or approachable. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Social Learning Theory (cont’d)Conditions for Social Learning The learner observes the model performing the behavior. The learner accurately perceives the model’s behavior. The learner remembers the behavior. The learner has the skills and abilities needed to perform the behavior. The learner sees or knows that the model is positively reinforced for the behavior. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Social Learning Theory (cont’d)Self-Reinforcement Any desired or attractive outcome or award that a person can give himself or herself for good performance. “The self-management of behavior” Self-efficacy A person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully. Influences motivation both when managers provide reinforcement and when workers themselves provide it. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Pay and Motivation Pay as a Motivator ExpectancyPay is an instrumentality (and outcome) Expectancy must be high for motivation to be high. Need Theory Pay is used to satisfy many needs. Equity Theory Pay is given in proportion to inputs. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Pay and Motivation Pay as a Motivator (cont’d) Goal Setting TheoryPay is linked to attainment of goals. Learning Theory The distribution of outcomes (pay) is contingent upon the performance of functional behaviors. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Merit Pay and PerformanceMerit Pay Plan A compensation plan that bases pay on individual, group and/or organization performance. Individual plan: when individual performance (sales) can accurately measured. Group plan: when group that works closely together is measured and rewarded as a group. Organization plan: when group or individual outcomes are not easily measured. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Salary Increase or Bonus?Motivational Value of a Bonus Is Higher When: Salary levels are unrelated to current performance. Changes in other compensation items (cost of living, seniority) are not having a large effect in increasing compensation. Salaries rarely change and performance does. Benefits of Using Bonuses Do not become permanent part of compensation. Are more directly tied to current performance. Provide more flexibility in distributing rewards. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Salary Increase or Bonus? (cont’d)Employee Stock Option A financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organization’s stock at a certain price during a certain period of time or under certain conditions. Uses: To attract high-level managers. To motivate employee performance through ownership in the firm. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Examples of Merit Pay PlansPiece-rate Pay Employee’s pay is based on the number of units that the employee produces. Commission Pay Employee’s pay is based on a percentage of sales that an employee makes personally. Organization-based Merit Plans Scanlon plan—focuses on reduced expenses or cutting costs. Profit sharing—employees receive a share of an organization’s profits. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
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