Presentation on theme: "Infection Control Techniques"— Presentation transcript:
1 Infection Control Techniques Chapter 20Infection Control TechniquesPowerPoint® presentation to accompany:Medical AssistingThird EditionBooth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson
2 Learning Outcomes20.1 Describe the medical assistant’s role in infection control.20.2 Describe methods of infection control.20.3 Compare and contrast medical and surgical asepsis.20.4 Describe how to perform aseptic hand washing.20.5 Compare and contrast the procedures for sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization.
3 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 20.6 Describe measures used in sanitization.20.7 List various methods used in disinfection and the advantages and disadvantages of each.20.8 Discuss the goal of surgical asepsis.20.9 Explain what an autoclave is and how it operates.20.10 List the steps in the general autoclave procedures.
4 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 20.11 Explain how to wrap and label items for sterilization in an autoclave.20.12 Describe how to complete the sterilization procedure using an autoclave.20.13 Define the Blood-Borne Pathogens Standard and Universal Precautions as described in the rules and regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
5 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 20.14 Explain the role of Universal Precautions in the duties of a medical assistant.20.15 List the procedures and legal requirements for disposing of hazardous waste.20.16 Describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requirements for reporting cases of infectious disease.20.17 Discuss the need for specific guidelines for isolating patients in health-care settings.
6 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 20.18 Describe the appropriate use of personal protective equipment in various situations.20.29 Explain the purpose of immunization.20.20 Describe your role in educating patients about immunizations.20.21 Explain how to educate patients in preventing disease transmission.
7 IntroductionPatients coming to the office for treatment may be more susceptible to infectionsImmunizations and patient education are important methods of infection controlYou will be introduced to OSHA guidelines, the Blood-Borne Pathogen Standard, reporting guidelines, and isolation procedures.
8 MA’s Role in Infection Control To control infectious diseases, the cycle of infection must be brokenApply principles of infection control in office setting
9 MA’s Role in Infection Control (cont.) Follow correct sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization proceduresHelp patients understand basic disease preventionEducate patients about immunizationsAdminister immunizations
10 Correct! Apply Your Knowledge What is your role as a medical assistant in control of infection in the medical office?ANSWER: To apply principles of infection control by following correct sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization procedures.Correct!
11 Infection Control Measures Eliminate elements needed for disease to occurKnowledge ofMedical asepsisBased on cleanlinessAs few microorganisms as possibleSurgical asepsisSterile environmentNo microorganisms
12 Medical Asepsis Keep office clean: Reception area: sick vs. well patientsReception room clean, well lit, and ventilatedKeep furniture in good repairStrict “no food or drink” policyEmpty trash as necessary
13 Medical Asepsis (cont.) During medical assistant proceduresPrevent cross-contaminationHand washingBeginning of dayAfter breaksBefore and after each patientBefore and after handling equipment or specimensAfter blowing your nose or coughing
14 Medical Asepsis (cont.) Other precautionsAvoid leaning against sinks, supplies, equipmentAvoid touching your face and mouthUse tissues when you cough or sneeze, and always wash your hands afterwardAvoid working directly with patients when you have a cold; wear gloves and mask if you mustStay home if you have a fever
15 Apply Your Knowledge Good Answer! Describe the difference between medical and surgical asepsis.ANSWER: Medical asepsis is based on cleanliness and reducing the number of microorganisms as much as possible. Surgical asepsis is maintaining a sterile environment by eliminating all microorganisms.Good Answer!
16 SanitizationScrubbing with a brush and detergent to remove blood, mucus, and other contaminants or media where pathogens can growFor cleaning items that touch only healthy, intact skinORFirst step in disinfection and sterilization for other equipment
17 Sanitization (cont.) Collect items for sanitization Scrub items Place in water and special detergent solutionUse utility glovesSeparate sharps from other equipmentScrub itemsFollow manufacturers’ guidelinesDry thoroughlyExamine carefully
18 Sanitization (cont.) Rubber and plastic items Syringes and needles Use disposable whenever possibleUltrasonic cleaningFor delicate instruments and those with moving partsSound waves generated through a cleaning solution to loosen contaminants
19 Nice Job! Apply Your Knowledge What is sanitation, and what types of items is it adequate for cleaning?ANSWER: Sanitation is scrubbing with a brush and detergent to remove blood, mucus, and other contaminants or media where pathogens can grow. It is adequate for cleaning items that touch only healthy, intact skin.Nice Job!
20 DisinfectionAdequate for instruments that do not penetrate skin or mucus membranes and surfaces not considered sterileORSecond step in infection control prior to sterilizationWill not kill spores, certain viruses
21 Disinfection (cont.) Using disinfectants Cleaning products applied to inanimate materials to reduce or eliminate infectious organismsAntiseptics are anti-infective cleaning agents used on human tissueFollow manufacturers’ guidelines
22 Disinfection (cont.) Factors impacting effectiveness of disinfectants Number of times solution is usedWet items – surface moisture may dilute solutionTraces of soap left from sanitization – alters chemical compositionEvaporation
23 Disinfection (cont.) Choose the correct disinfectant Germicidal soap productsAlcoholAcid productsFormaldehydeGlutaraldehyde – “cold disinfection”BleachIodine and iodine compounds
24 Disinfection (cont.) Handling disinfected supplies Prevent contamination with other surfacesUse sterile transfer forcepsWear glovesStore in clean, moisture-free environment
25 Apply Your Knowledge Excellent! What is the difference between a disinfectant and an antiseptic?ANTISEPTIC: Disinfectants are cleaning products applied to inanimate materials to reduce or eliminate infectious organisms. Antiseptics are anti-infective cleaning agents used on human tissue.Excellent!
26 Surgical AsepsisGoal is to keep the surgical environment completely free of all microorganismsUsed for even minor operations and injectionsThe more extensive the procedure, the greater the risk of infection
27 Sterilization Required for all instruments or supplies that Penetrate the skinContact normally sterile areas of the bodyObject is either sterile or not sterileIf unsure of sterility, consider it not sterilePrior to sterilizationSanitizeDisinfect
28 Sterilization: The Autoclave Primary method of sterilizationPressurized steamOperates at lower temperatures than dry heat sterilizationMoisture causes coagulation of proteins in microorganisms at lower temperaturesCell walls burst when cell cools, killing the microorganism
29 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.) Wrap sanitized and disinfected itemsSpecial porous fabric, paper, or plasticItems should not touchLabelCheck water level – distilled water onlyPreheat, but do not overheat
30 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.) Load, choose correct setting, run cycleTemperature 250° to 270° FPressure 15 to 30 poundsUnloadStore items properlyClean, dry locationShelf life based on packaging, but generally 30 days
31 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.) Clean autoclave and areaQuality control checksSterilization indicators – confirm that items have been exposed to correct volume of steam at the correct temperature for the correct length of timeBiological indicators – contain bacterial spores and confirm that sterilization occurs
32 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.) Prevent incomplete sterilizationCorrect timingAdequate temperatureProperly wrapped packsAdequate steam levelsTimingPreset for load typesUse sterilization indicators
33 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.) TemperatureToo high – steam too little moistureToo low – steam too much moistureDo not overcrowd autoclaveSteam levelIf incorrect, items will not be sterile at end of cycle
34 Sterilization: Sterile Technique Surgical scrubDuring surgical proceduresDo not touch sterile items without sterile gloves or transfer forcepsAseptic techniqueThroughout surgical proceduresCaring for surgical wounds
35 Sterilization: Surgical Asepsis After proceduresSanitize, disinfect, and sterilize reusable itemsDisinfect surfacesWaste disposalBiohazard waste containersLeak-proof containers either color-coded red or labeled with biohazard symbolBiohazardous wasteBiological agents that can spread disease to living things
36 Apply Your Knowledge What items need to be sterilized? ANSWER: Sterilization is required for all instruments or supplies that penetrate the skin or come in contact with normally sterile areas of the body.
37 Right! Apply Your Knowledge The physician is going to remove a small growth from your patient’s back. In order to prepare for this procedure, what steps would you take to prevent the spread of infection?ANSWER: Use medical asepsis while preparing the patient, and then use surgical asepsis during the procedure.Right!
38 OSHA Guidelines Blood-Borne Pathogen Standards Protect health-care workers from health hazards on the jobAlso protect patients and others who come to medical facilitiesDictate how to handle infectious or potentially infectious wastesDiscardedHeld for processing
39 OSHA Guidelines (cont.) Blood-Borne Pathogen StandardsMeasures to prevent the spread of infectionProvide a margin of safety by ensuring that medical facilities meet minimal standards for asepsisRequirements for training, keeping records, housekeeping, and personal protective gear
40 OSHA Guidelines (cont.) Universal PrecautionsPrevent health-care workers from exposure to infectionsAssume that all blood and blood and body fluids are infected with blood-borne pathogensStandard PrecautionsCombination of Universal Precautions and Body Substance Isolation guidelinesUsed in hospitals to prevent transmission of disease
41 OSHA Guidelines (cont.) Categories of tasksTasks that expose a worker to blood, body fluids, or tissues and require specific protective measuresTasks that usually do not involve risk of exposure but require precautions in certain situationsTasks that have no risk of exposure, so no special protection is required
42 OSHA Guidelines (cont.) Personal Protective EquipmentProtective gear worn to protect against physical hazardsEmployers must provide PPE at no charge to the employeeDisposable, sterile exam and utility glovesMasks and protective eyewear or face shieldsProtective clothing
43 OSHA Guidelines (cont.) Postprocedure CleanupDecontaminate all exposed surfacesReplace protective coverings on surfaces or equipmentDecontaminate receptaclesPick up any broken glass with tongsDiscard all potentially infectious waste materials
44 OSHA Guidelines (cont.) Apply guidelines daily on the jobExposure incidentsContact with infectious substanceRules apply to all serious infections – HIV, HBVHBV vaccineTransmission to patientsNosocomial infection – an infection acquired by a patient in a health-care facility
45 Apply Your Knowledge Impressive! OSHA divides medical tasks by level of risk. What are these risk categories?ANSWER: There are three categories of risk:Category 1: Expose a worker to blood, body fluids, or tissues and require specific protective measuresCategory 2: Usually do not involve risk of exposure, but precautions are required in certain situationsCategory 3: No risk of exposure, so no special protection is requiredImpressive!
46 Reporting GuidelinesCertain diseases must be reported to state or county health departmentInformation is forwarded to the CDC – control of the spread of infection
48 Good Anwer! Apply Your Knowledge How is the information on reportable diseases used by the CDC?ANSWER: The CDC uses the information reported to them to help control the spread of infection.Good Anwer!
49 Isolation Guidelines CDC guidelines Types of precautions neededPatients requiring precautionsCreate an environment that protects against pathogensStandard Precautions
50 Isolation Guidelines (cont.) PPESelect appropriate PPE for mode of transmissionGlovesMasks, face shields, respiratorsGownsTable 20-3
51 Nice! Apply Your Knowledge Mrs. Findley brings her child with chickenpox into the medical office. What type of personal protective equipment should you use when caring for this child?ANSWER: Chickenpox requires airborne and contact precautions, so you should use gloves and a mask and goggles or a respirator.Nice!
52 Immunizations Immunization Reduces risk of infection spread Administration of a vaccine or toxoid to protect susceptible individuals from infectious diseasesReduces risk of infection spreadDecreases the susceptibility of the host
53 Immunizations: Recommendations Immunization schedules for childrenAdvisory Committee on Immunization PracticesAmerican Academy of PediatricsAmerican Academy of Family PhysiciansImmunization schedules for adultsThe National Coalition of Adult Immunization (NCAI)
54 Immunizations (cont.) When administering. you must explain The need for immunizationSide effectsSoreness at siteLow-grade feverGeneral malaise
55 Immunizations (cont.) Concerns Pediatric patients Informed consent Do not give if child has feverInformed consentExplain benefits and risksContraindicationsSymptoms that render the use of a remedy or procedure inadvisable because of the risk
56 Immunizations (cont.) Immunization records Pregnant patients Elderly National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1988Instruct parents keep record as proof of immunizationPregnant patientsAvoid live virus vaccinesFDA categories A, B, C, D, and XElderlyMore likely to develop side effects
57 Immunizations (cont.) Immunocompromised patients Health-care workers May experience minimal to dangerous effectsAdjust dosage or delay administrationMust also consider immunization status of family and caregiversHealth-care workersHepatitis B vaccination offered by employer at no cost to employee
58 Apply Your Knowledge Great! What is an immunization? ANSWER: An immunization is the administration of a vaccine or toxoid to protect susceptible individuals from infectious diseases.Great!
59 Preventing Disease Transmission Patient educationHealth promotionDisease preventionDisease treatmentMedical Assistant role in patient educationShare responsibilityReinforce and explain instructions
60 Preventing Disease Transmission (cont.) Educate patient onNutrition and dietExercise and weight controlPrevention of STDsSmoking cessationAlcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatmentProper use of medications and prescribed treatmentsStress-reduction techniques
61 Preventing Disease Transmission (cont.) Goal of patient educationHelp patients take care of themselvesEncourage patients to participate actively in their own health care
62 Bravo! Apply Your Knowledge What three areas should patient education focus on? What is the medical assistant’s role in patient education?ANSWER: Patient education should focus on health promotion, disease prevention, and disease treatment.The medical assistant shares responsibility with the physician and other staff members and should reinforce and explain instructions given by others.Bravo!
63 In Summary Medical Assistant Sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization break the cycle of infection by ridding instruments and equipment of pathogens.The medical assistant plays a vital role in reducing patient vulnerability by encouraging patients to maintain a correct immunization status and by being aware of special immunization concerns of certain patients.
64 End of Chapter 20Soap and education are not as sudden as a massacre, but they are more deadly in the long run.~ Mark Twain