2 What is a ROCKET?A rocket or rocket vehicle is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine.In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use.Rocket engines work by action and reaction. Rocket engines push rockets forwards simply by throwing their exhaust backwards extremely fast.
3 History of RocketsThe Chinese invented the rocket centuries ago. During the 1200’s, Chinese soldiers fired small rockets as weapons in battle.
4 Robert Goddard – The Father of Rocketry In 1926, Goddardlaunched the first liquidpropellant rocket, usinggasoline and liquidoxygen as fuel.
5 Modern RocketryRocketry has enabled space technologies particularly satellites to exist, many of which impact people's everyday lives.Scientifically, rocketry has opened a window on the universe, allowing the launch of space probes to explore the solar system and space-based telescopes to obtain a clearer view of the rest of the universe.
6 What are satellites?An object that revolves around another object in a circular pathIn the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by humans. These objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.
7 What are satellites used for? Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites.Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.
8 History of Satellites The First Satellites The theory of satellites was simple enough - shoot something out into space at the right speed and on the correct trajectory and it will stay up there, orbiting Earth, for years - if not forever.Early in October 1957 communications stations started picking up a regular beeping noise coming from space.The signals were coming from Russia's Sputnik 1, the world's first man-made satellite.
9 What are space probes? Gather and transmit information to Earth Unlike satellites that orbit Earth, space probes travel far into the solar system.Space probes carry cameras and other data gathering equipment, as well as radio transmitters and receivers.
10 Past Space Probe: Mariner 2 Early space probe1962Destination: Venus – verified high temperatures in Venus’ atmosphereLook in your textbook at pgs for more pictures and info of space probes.
11 Current Space Probe: Cassini-Huygen Space probe currently studying Saturn and Saturn’s moonsLaunched in 1997, entered Saturn’s orbit in 2004, mission may continue until 2017Cassini has several primary objectives:Determine the three-dimensional structure and behavior of the rings of SaturnDetermine the composition of the moon surfaces and the geological history of each objectStudy the dynamic behavior of Saturn's atmosphere at cloud levelCharacterize Titan's surface
12 Future Space Probe: “JUNO” Juno launches in August 2011Five-year cruise to Jupiter, arriving July 2016One year at Jupiter will complete the mission (orbiting the planet 32 times)Juno will improve our understanding of our solar system’s beginnings by revealing the origin and evolution of Jupiter. Juno will…Determine how much water is in Jupiter’s atmosphere, which helps determine which planet formation theory is correctLook deep into Jupiter’s atmosphere to measure composition, temperature, cloud motions and other propertiesMap Jupiter’s magnetic and gravity fields, revealing the planet’s deep structure
13 What is a space shuttle?A space shuttle is a reusable spacecraft for transporting people, satellites, and other materials to and from space.Launched standing on endGlides back to Earth like an airplane
14 STS!Space Shuttle Discovery, atop the mobile launcher platform and crawler transporter, nears the top of Launch Pad 39B after a4.2-mile crawl from the Vehicle Assembly Building. At left are the Rotating Service Structure and the Fixed Service Structure,which will enable final preparations of the orbiter, external tank and solid rocket boosters for the STS-103 launch targeted forDec. 6, 1999, at 2:37 a.m. EST. The mission is a "call-up" due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble SpaceTelescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes areworking properly. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The STS-103crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M.Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, both with the European SpaceAgency. (Photo Release Date: 11/13/1999 )14
15 Space Shuttle The Shuttle consists of three major parts: • an orbiter with wings forlanding• an external tank• two solid rocket boosters.At lift-off, the Shuttle stands 56 m high and weighs about 2,000,000 kg.
16 Space Shuttle- After the space shuttle reaches space, it begins to orbit Earth. There astronauts perform many different tasks.- In the cargo bay, astronauts conduct scientific experiments and determine the effects of spaceflight on the human body.- When the cargo bay isn’t used as a lab, the shuttle can launch, repair, and retrieve satellites.NASA Photo ID: STS031(S) File Name: jpgFilm Type: 35mm Date Taken: 04/29/90Title: STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, glides toward EAFB landingDescription:STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, approaches Edwards Air ForceBase (EAFB), California landing facility. This view was captured momentsbefore the landing gear was deployed and shows OV-103's port side and itsunderside of carefully placed heat shield tiles. OV-103 came to acomplete wheel stop at 6:51:00 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)) onconcrete runway 22.Subject terms:AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHYAPPROACHDISCOVERY (ORBITER)SPACECRAFT LANDINGSTS-31THERMAL PROTECTIONTILES16
17 What is a Space Station?A space station is a structure designed for humans to work and live in outer space for a period of time.
18 World’s First Space Station The world's first spacestation was launched bythe Russians in 1971.Salyut 1 was a modifiedspaceship that could onlyhouse a crew of three.
19 First American Space Station One of three Saturnrockets remaining fromthe Apollo program waskept flight ready.Its third stage wasmodified into the Skylabspace station byconverting the fuel tankinto cabins.Skylab was launchedinto orbit in May 1973.The 75-ton spacestation hosted 3 crewsof 3 astronauts, each for171 days.
20 Our Current Space Station: The ISS The International Space Station (ISS) is an internationally developed research facility that is being assembled in low Earth orbit.On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion by late The station is expected to remain in operation until at least 2020.With a greater mass than that of any previous space station, the ISS can be seen from Earth with the naked eye, and is by far the largest artificial satellite that has ever orbited Earth. (the size of a football field)The ISS serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology, chemistry, human biology, physics, astronomy and meteorology
22 The role of the ISSTo prepare for efforts on the Moon, Mars, and beyondUnderstand the space environment, long duration living, and working impact on astronaut healthAllows testing of new technologies, materials, roboticsSTS (14 October 2002) --- Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, works near the S0 (S-Zero) Truss on the International Space Station (ISS) during the mission’s third and final scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA). The airlock spur, a route used by spacewalkers to get from the Quest airlock on the station to the outpost's truss, is visible in the upper left portion of the frame.STS (13 April 2002) --- Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, STS-110 mission specialist, anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the International Space Station’s (ISS) Canadarm2, moves toward the station’s newly installed S0 (S-zero) truss during this second scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, worked in tandem with Morin on the space walk.22
23 Finished with C-Notes Write a 4-5 sentences summary of you C-Notes Glue C-Notes onto next right hand pageLeft hand page:Pick 5 words and draw a pictureUnder the picture write 2-3 sentences explaining your pictureWhen a word is used from your C-Notes underline it.