Objectives Anticipated Outcomes Express why Monitoring and Controlling are Important. Differentiate between Monitoring and Controlling processes Articulate the elements of Monitoring and Controlling Understand various types of Monitoring and Controlling Be able to develop a Monitoring Plan
Monitoring Complete Project Status Knowledge AreaProcess Integration Monitor Project Work Scope Assess Scope Status Time Schedule Monitoring Cost Cost Monitoring Quality Assess Quality Human Resource Management Manage Project Team Communication Performance Reporting Manage Stakeholders Risk Risk Monitoring Procurement Contract Administration Monitoring
Project Proposal / Project Charter Goal Outputs Purpose inputs Logical Framework Critical Path Method Annual Performance Target Table Output Based Budget Output 1 _______ Output 2 _______ GANTT Chart Task Time Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5Indicator The Logical Framework links naturally to other project management tools Conceptual Design and Monitoring
Inputs 4 Categories of Monitoring Project Description IndicatorsSource of Verification Assumptions Goal text Objective(s) text Results text Activities text 2. Outcomes Monitoring - Is the causal relationship between the results and the objectives correct? 1. Operational Monitoring (bean counting) Service Delivery Physical Distribution Financial tracking Procurement and inventory tracking 1. Operational Monitoring (bean counting) Service Delivery Physical Distribution Financial tracking Procurement and inventory tracking 3. Objectives Monitoring - Is the causal logical between the objectives and the goal correct? 4. Risk Monitoring – Pay special attention to monitoring your assumptions at the Activity and Results levels during implementation
Monitoring the Project Constraints Compare against the triple constraint baselines – Cost – Time – Scope (Product and Project) Identify variances React as necessary
Project Baselines The original plan, plus or minus approved changes Baselines – Scope: statement of work, work breakdown structure – Cost: project budget – Schedule (Time): network diagram, Gantt chart Do we ever want to change the Baseline?
Stakeholder Monitoring Needs What does each need to know – when and why? Project Manager Organization and Partners Beneficiaries Project Team Donor What is the most cost-effective means of getting the information?
Inputs Utilization-Focused M&E StakeholderNeed to KnowHow OftenResponsibility
6 Questions for Monitoring Plans 1. What information is needed to track the indicator? 2. Who will collect the information? How often will it be collected? 3. What data collection methods are appropriate? 4. How will the information be analyzed? Who will analyze it? How often will it be analyzed? 5. Who will report the results? 6. Who will receive the results? What decisions will be made with th is information?
Why evaluate? The main objectives of program evaluations are: To inform decisions on operations, policy, or strategy related to ongoing or future program interventions To demonstrate accountability to decision-makers (i.e. donors). Shows a clear linkage between your design (using LogFrame) and your actual deliverables.
After Action Review Review the activity and its related objective or deliverable. For each one ask the following: 1. What did we set out to do? 2. What did we achieve? 3. What went really well? 4. What could have gone better? 5. What prevented us from doing more? 6. What can we learn from this?
Final Evaluations Conducted toward the end of the project. Largely judgment oriented – determining overall merit, worth or value of a project. Generally include an external evaluator and require more planning and investment.
External vs. Internal Evaluators Provides a fresh look at the project and can draw from other project experiences Not personally involved, easier to be objective Is not part of the power and authority structure of the project Trained in evaluation methods and has wide experience planning and conducting other evaluations Better able to focus for longer periods of time on evaluation tasks Has in-depth understanding of the project and can interpret attitudes and behaviors of participants and stakeholders May lessen anxiety as he is well-known to project stakeholders and has established relationships Less expensive May have limited understanding of the project, and participants and stakeholders involved and therefore needs time to digest information on the project May cause more anxiety as he does not have an established relationship of trust with project stakeholders More expensive May be unwittingly constrained by attitudes such as “We have always done it this way” Personally and professionally involved, so harder to be objective Is part of the power and authority structure of the project May not be trained in evaluation methods and may have limited experience planning or conducting evaluations May have time constraints for evaluation due to other duties ExternalInternal Disadvantages Advantages
Ex-Post Evaluations Conducted at a defined period of time after project completion. Knowledge-oriented, emphasizing sustainable impact evaluation Are especially useful when advocating for interventions in a specific program or portfolio area. Not conducted as regularly as final evaluations.