2 Homeostasis:Process that regulates and maintains a constant internal environment regardless of the external environment.Also referred to as Dynamic Equilibrium (Fluctuation of conditions within an acceptable range)
3 For example, regardless of external conditions and substances ingested, the body must maintain: Temperature 37 degrees CelciusBlood pH level 7.35Glucose level (blood sugar level)0.1%
4 In order to control and maintain homeostasis we need the following elements: Monitor (Ex. Sensors throughout the body that signal the coordinating centre)Coordinating centre (Ex. Sends information to a specific regulator)Regulator (Ex. Will perform a function to restore balance)
5 Examples of regulation: Carbon dioxide and Oxygen levels
6 Homeostasis and Feedback Negative Feedback RegulationCounteracts any further actionReverses the original change and brings the system back to normal.The bigger then change the bigger the corrective mechanism
7 In a system controlled by negative feedback the level is never maintained perfectly, but constantly oscillates about the set point. An efficient homeostatic system minimizes the size of the oscillations.
8 Positive Feedback Regulation When something small is amplified
9 ThermoregulationMaintenance of body temperature within a specific range in order for cell function to occur efficiently.Ectotherms (Fish, amphitibians and reptiles) depend on air temperature to regulate metabolic rates. Thermoregulation is therefore partially dependent on the environment. Behaviour of these organisms may help adapt to their environment (Ex. Reptiles sun bathing on rocks)Endotherms (Mammals and birds) maintain a constant body temperature regardless of environmental conditions.
10 Hypothalamus: Part of the brain that controls many nerve and hormone functions (With regards to thermoregulation, it can be related to a thermostat where it can turn on to warm the internal environment.)
12 Response to low temperature Response to high temperature EffectorResponse to low temperatureResponse to high temperatureSmooth muscles in peripheral arterioles in the skin.Muscles contract causing vasoconstriction. Less heat is carried from the core to the surface of the body, maintaining core temperature. Extremities can turn blue and feel cold and can even be damaged (frostbite).Muscles relax causing vasodilation. More heat is carried from the core to the surface, where it is lost by radiation. Skin turns red.Sweat glandsNo sweat produced.Glands secrete sweat onto surface of skin, where it evaporates. Water has a high latent heat of evaporation, so it takes heat from the body.Erector pili muscles in skin (attached to skin hairs)Muscles contract, raising skin hairs and trapping an insulating layer of still, warm air next to the skin. Not very effective in humans, just causing "goosebumps".Muscles relax, lowering the skin hairs and allowing air to circulate over the skin, encouraging convection and evaporation.Skeletal musclesMuscles contract and relax repeatedly, generating heat by friction and from metabolic reactions.No shivering.Adrenal and thyroid glandsGlands secrete adrenaline and thyroxine respectively, which increase the metabolic rate in different tissues, especially the liver, so generating heat.Glands stop releasing adrenaline and thyroxine.BehaviourCurling up, huddling, finding shelter, putting on more clothes.Stretching out, finding shade, swimming, removing clothes.