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Chapter 40-Coordination and ControlControl and coordination within a body depend on the endocrine system and the nervous system The endocrine system transmits chemical signals called hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via blood A hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the body Hormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.6 Figure 40.6 Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems 2
Figure 40.6a Figure 40.6 Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems 3
The nervous system transmits information between specific locations The information conveyed depends on a signal’s pathway, not the type of signal Nerve signal transmission is very fast Nerve impulses can be received by neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells, and exocrine cells © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.6b Figure 40.6 Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems 5
Figure 40.UN01 Figure 40.UN01 Summary figure, Concept 40.2 6
Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animalsAnimals manage their internal environment by regulating or conforming to the external environment A regulator uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation A conformer allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes Animals may regulate some environmental variables while conforming to others © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.7 Figure 40.7 The relationship between body and environmental temperatures in an aquatic temperature regulator and an aquatic temperature conformer. 8
Homeostasis Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external environment In humans, body temperature, blood pH, and glucose concentration are each maintained at a constant level © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mechanisms of HomeostasisMechanisms of homeostasis moderate changes in the internal environment For a given variable, fluctuations above or below a set point serve as a stimulus; these are detected by a sensor and trigger a response The response returns the variable to the set point © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.8 Figure 40.8 A nonliving example of temperature regulation: control of room temperature. 11
Feedback Control in HomeostasisThe dynamic equilibrium of homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback, which helps to return a variable to a normal range Most homeostatic control systems function by negative feedback, where buildup of the end product shuts the system off Positive feedback amplifies a stimulus and does not usually contribute to homeostasis in animals © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Alterations in HomeostasisSet points and normal ranges can change with age or show cyclic variation In animals and plants, a circadian rhythm governs physiological changes that occur roughly every 24 hours © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.9 Figure 40.9 Human circadian rhythm. 14
Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behaviorThermoregulation is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Endothermy and EctothermyEndothermic animals generate heat by metabolism; birds and mammals are endotherms, active at a greater range of temperatures. Ectothermic animals gain heat from external sources; ectotherms include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and nonavian reptiles, tolerate greater fluctuations in temp © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.10 Figure Endothermy and ectothermy. 17
Balancing Heat Loss and GainOrganisms exchange heat by four physical processes: radiation, evaporation, convection, and conduction © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.11 Figure Heat exchange between an organism and its environment. 19
Five adaptations help animals thermoregulate:Heat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system: skin, hair, and nails Five adaptations help animals thermoregulate: Insulation Circulatory adaptations Cooling by evaporative heat loss Behavioral responses Adjusting metabolic heat production © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Insulation Insulation is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heat flow between an animal and its environment Insulation is especially important in marine mammals such as whales and walruses © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Circulatory AdaptationsRegulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly affects thermoregulation Many endotherms and some ectotherms can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin In vasodilation, blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss In vasoconstriction, blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The arrangement of blood vessels in many marine mammals and birds allows for countercurrent exchangeCountercurrent heat exchangers transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions and reduce heat loss © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.12 Figure Countercurrent heat exchangers. 24
Some bony fishes and sharks also use countercurrent heat exchanges Many endothermic insects have countercurrent heat exchangers that help maintain a high temperature in the thorax © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cooling by Evaporative Heat LossMany types of animals lose heat through evaporation of water from their skin Panting increases the cooling effect in birds and many mammals Sweating or bathing moistens the skin, helping to cool an animal down © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Behavioral Responses Both endotherms and ectotherms use behavioral responses to control body temperature Some terrestrial invertebrates have postures that minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Adjusting Metabolic Heat ProductionThermogenesis is the adjustment of metabolic heat production to maintain body temperature Thermogenesis is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering Nonshivering thermogenesis takes place when hormones cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.15 Figure Preflight warm-up in the hawkmoth. 29
Acclimatization in ThermoregulationBirds and mammals can vary their insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes When temperatures are subzero, some ectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds to prevent ice formation in their cells © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Physiological Thermostats and FeverThermoregulation is controlled by a region of the brain called the hypothalamus The hypothalamus triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms Fever is the result of a change to the set point for a biological thermostat © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 40.16 Figure The thermostatic function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulation. 32
Temperature regulation HBS3A. Homeostasis Maintenance of constant internal environment This involves continually replacing substances as they are used.
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