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# Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 1.

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Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 1

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2 Chapter 15 Created by David Mann, North Idaho College Pointers and Linked Lists

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3 Overview Nodes and Linked Lists(15.1) A Linked List Application (15.2)

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4 Nodes and Linked Lists A linked list is a list that can grow and shrink while the program is running A linked list is constructed using pointers A linked list often consists of structs or classes that contain a pointer variable connecting them to other dynamic variables A linked list can be visualized as items, drawn as boxes, connected to other items by arrows 10 15.1 12 14 end head

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5 Nodes The boxes in the previous drawing represent the nodes of a linked list Nodes contain the data item(s) and a pointer that can point to another node of the same type The pointers point to the entire node, not an individual item that might be in the node The arrows in the drawing represent pointers Display 15.1

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6 Implementing Nodes Nodes are implemented in C++ as structs or classes Example: A structure to store two data items and a pointer to another node of the same type, along with a type definition might be: struct ListNode { string item; int count; ListNode *link; }; typedef ListNode* ListNodePtr; This circular definition is allowed in C++

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 7 The head of a List The box labeled head, in display 15.1, is not a node, but a pointer variable that points to a node Pointer variable head is declared as: ListNodePtr head;

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 8 Accessing Items in a Node Using the diagram of 15.1, this is one way to change the number in the first node from 10 to 12: (*head). count = 12; head is a pointer variable so *head is the node that head points to The parentheses are necessary because the dot operator. has higher precedence than the dereference operator *

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9 The Arrow Operator The arrow operator -> combines the actions of the dereferencing operator * and the dot operator to specify a member of a struct or object pointed to by a pointer (*head).count = 12; can be written as head -> count = 12; The arrow operator is more commonly used Display 15.2

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10 NULL The defined constant NULL is used as… An end marker for a linked list A program can step through a list of nodes by following the pointers, but when it finds a node containing NULL, it knows it has come to the end of the list The value of a pointer that has nothing to point to The value of NULL is 0 Any pointer can be assigned the value NULL: double* there = NULL;

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11 To Use NULL A definition of NULL is found in several libraries, including and A using directive is not needed for NULL

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 12 Linked Lists The diagram in Display 15.2 depicts a linked list A linked list is a list of nodes in which each node has a member variable that is a pointer that points to the next node in the list The first node is called the head The pointer variable head, points to the first node The pointer named head is not the head of the list…it points to the head of the list The last node contains a pointer set to NULL

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13 Building a Linked List: The node definition Let's begin with a simple node definition: struct Node { int data; Node *link; }; typedef Node* NodePtr;

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 14 Building a Linked List: Declaring Pointer Variable head With the node defined and a type definition to make or code easier to understand, we can declare the pointer variable head: NodePtr head; head is a pointer variable that will point to the head node when the node is created

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 15 Building a Linked List: Creating the First Node To create the first node, the operator new is used to create a new dynamic variable: head = new Node; Now head points to the first, and only, node in the list

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 16 Building a Linked List: Initializing the Node Now that head points to a node, we need to give values to the member variables of the node: head->data = 3; head->link = NULL; Since this node is the last node, the link is set to NULL

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 17 Function head_insert It would be better to create a function to insert nodes at the head of a list, such as: void head_insert(NodePtr& head, int the_number); The first parameter is a NodePtr parameter that points to the first node in the linked list The second parameter is the number to store in the list head_insert will create a new node for the number The number will be copied to the new node The new node will be inserted in the list as the new head node

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18 Pseudocode for head_insert Create a new dynamic variable pointed to by temp_ptr Place the data in the new node called *temp_ptr Make temp_ptr's link variable point to the head node Make the head pointer point to temp_ptr Display 15.3

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19 Translating head_insert to C++ The pseudocode for head_insert can be written in C++ using these lines in place of the lines of pseudocode: NodePtr temp_ptr; //create the temporary pointer temp_ptr = new Node; // create the new node temp_ptr->data = the_number; //copy the number temp_ptr->link = head; //new node points to first node head = temp_ptr; // head points to new // first node Display 15.4

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 20 An Empty List A list with nothing in it is called an empty list An empty linked list has no head node The head pointer of an empty list is NULL head = NULL; Any functions written to manipulate a linked list should check to see if it works on the empty list

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 21 Losing Nodes You might be tempted to write head_insert using the head pointer to construct the new node: head = new Node; head->data = the_number; Now to attach the new node to the list The node that head used to point to is now lost! Display 15.5

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22 Memory Leaks Nodes that are lost by assigning their pointers a new address are not accessible any longer The program has no way to refer to the nodes and cannot delete them to return their memory to the freestore Programs that lose nodes have a memory leak Significant memory leaks can cause system crashes

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23 Searching a Linked List To design a function that will locate a particular node in a linked list: We want the function to return a pointer to the node so we can use the data if we find it, else return NULL The linked list is one argument to the function The data we wish to find is the other argument This declaration will work: NodePtr search(NodePtr head, int target);

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24 Function search Refining our function We will use a local pointer variable, named here, to move through the list checking for the target The only way to move around a linked list is to follow pointers We will start with here pointing to the first node and move the pointer from node to node following the pointer out of each node Display 15.6

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25 Pseudocode for search 1.Make pointer variable here point to the head node 2.while(here does not point to a node containing target AND here does not point to the last node) { make here point to the next node } 3.If (here points to a node containing the target) return here; else return NULL;

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 26 Moving Through the List The pseudocode for search requires that pointer here step through the list How does here follow the pointers from node to node? When here points to a node, here->link is the address of the next node To make here point to the next node, make the assignment: here = here->link;

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 27 A Refinement of search The search function can be refined in this way: here = head; while(here->data != target && here->link != NULL) { here = here->next; } if (here -> data = = target) return here; else return NULL; Check for last node

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 28 Searching an Empty List Our search algorithm has a problem If the list is empty, here equals NULL before the while loop so… here->data is undefined here->link is undefined The empty list requires a special case in our search function A refined search function that handles an empty list is shown in Display 15.7

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 29 Pointers as Iterators An iterator is a construct that allows you to cycle through the data items in a data structure to perform an action on each item An iterator can be an object of an iterator class, an array index, or simply a pointer A general outline using a pointer as an iterator: Node_Type *iter; for (iter = Head; iter != NULL; iter = iter->Link) //perform the action on the node iter points to Head is a pointer to the head node of the list

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 30 Iterator Example Using the previous outline of an iterator we can display the contents of a linked list in this way: NodePtr iter; for (iter = Head; iter != NULL; iter = iter->Link) cout data);

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 31 Inserting a Node Inside a List To insert a node after a specified node in the linked list: Use another function to obtain a pointer to the node after which the new node will be inserted Call the pointer after_me Use function insert, declared here to insert the node: void insert(NodePtr after_me, int the_number); Display 15.8

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 32 Inserting the New Node Function insert creates the new node just as head_insert did We do not want our new node at the head of the list however, so… We use the pointer after_me to insert the new node

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 33 Inserting the New Node This code will accomplish the insertion of the new node, pointed to by temp_ptr, after the node pointed to by after_me: temp_ptr->link = after_me->link; after_me->link = temp_ptr; head after_me temp_ptr 2 2 3 2 7 2 9 0 5 2

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 34 Caution! The order of pointer assignments is critical If we changed after_me->link to point to temp_ptr first, we would loose the rest of the list! The complete insert function is shown in Display 15.9

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 35 Function insert Again Notice that inserting into a linked list requires that you only change two pointers This is true regardless of the length of the list Using an array for the list would involve copying as many as all of the array elements to new locations to make room for the new item Inserting into a linked list is often more efficient than inserting into an array

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 36 Removing a Node To remove a node from a linked list Position a pointer, before, to point at the node prior to the node to remove Position a pointer, discard, to point at the node to remove Perform: before->link = discard->link; The node is removed from the list, but is still in memory Return *discard to the freestore: delete discard; Display 15.10

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 37 AssignmentWith Pointers If head1 and head2 are pointer variables and head1 points to the head node of a list: head2 = head1; causes head2 and head1 to point to the same list There is only one list! If you want head2 to point to a separate copy, you must copy the list node by node or overload the assignment operator appropriately

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 38 Section 15.1 Conclusion Can you Write type definitions for the nodes and pointers in a linked list? Call the node type NodeType and call the pointer type PointerType. The linked lists will be lists of letters. Explain why inserting into an array can be less efficient than inserting into a linked list?

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 39 A Linked List Application A stack is a data structure that retrieves data in the reverse order the data was stored If 'A', 'B', and then 'C' are placed in a stack, they will be removed in the order 'C', 'B', and then 'A' A stack is a last-in/first-out data structure like the stack of plates in a cafeteria; adding a plate pushes down the stack and the top plate is the first one removed 15.2 Display 15.11

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 40 Program Example: A Stack Class We will create a stack class to store characters Adding an item to a stack is pushing onto the stack Member function push will perform this task Removing an item from the stack is popping the the item off the stack Member function pop will perform this task contains the stack class interface Display 15.12

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 41 Using the stack Class demonstrates the use of the stack class Display 15.13 (1-2)

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 42 Function push The push function adds an item to the stack It uses a parameter of the type stored in the stack void push(char the_symbol); Pushing an item onto the stack is precisely the same task accomplished by function head_insert of the linked list For a stack, a pointer named top is used instead of a pointer named head

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 43 Function pop The pop function returns the item that was at the top of the stack char pop( ); Before popping an item from a stack, pop checks that the stack is not empty pop stores the top item in a local variable result, and the item is "popped" by: top = top->link; A temporary pointer must point to the old top item so it can be "deleted" to prevent a memory leak pop then returns variable result

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 44 Empty Stack An empty stack is identified by setting the top pointer to NULL top = NULL;

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 45 The Copy Constructor Because the stack class uses a pointer and creates new nodes using new, a copy constructor is needed The copy constructor (a self-test exercise) must make a copy of each item in the stack and store the copies in a new stack Items in the new stack must be in the same position in the stack as in the original

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 46 The stack destructor Because function pop calls delete each time an item is popped off the stack, ~stack only needs to call pop until the stack is empty char next; while( ! empty ( ) ) { next = pop( ); }

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 47 stack Class Implementation The stack class implementation is found in Display 15.14 (1) Display 15.14 (2)

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 48 Section 15.2 Conclusion Can you Give the definition of member function push? Create a definition for the stack class copy constructor?

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 49 Chapter 15 -- End

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 50 Display 15.1 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 51 Display 15.2 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 52 Display 15.3 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 53 Display 15.4 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 54 Display 15.5 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 55 Display 15.6 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 56 Display 15.7 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 57 Display 15.8 Next Back

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 58 Display 15.9 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 59 Display 15.10 Next Back

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 60 Display 15.11 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 61 Display 15.12 Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 62 Display 15.13 (1/2) Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 63 Display 15.13 (2/2) Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 64 Display 15.14 (1/2) Back Next

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 65 Display 15.14 (2/2) Back Next

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