Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces Weight (Gravitational Pull) Driving Force

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Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces Weight (Gravitational Pull) Driving Force
Reaction Force Friction Air Resistance Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

A Tour de Forces What is a force, and how does it act on an object?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces A Tour de Forces What is a force, and how does it act on an object? In science, a force is a push or a pull. All forces are vectors. This means they have both a size and a direction. The unit used to express force is the newton (N). Forces do not always cause motion. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 2

What is a force, and how does it act on an object?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces What is a force, and how does it act on an object? Forces can act on objects that are in contact with each other. Such a force is called a contact force. Friction is an example of a contact force between two surfaces that are touching. Car tires rely on friction to keep a moving car from sliding off a road. Cars may slide on icy roads because ice lowers the force of friction on the tires. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 3

What is a force, and how does it act on an object?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces What is a force, and how does it act on an object? Forces can also act on objects that are at a distance. Gravity is a force that pulls objects toward Earth. Magnetic forces can also act at a distance. Magnetic force can be a pull, as when a magnet holds paper to a metal refrigerator door, or a push, as when like poles of two magnets push each other apart. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 4

In the Balance What happens when multiple forces act on an object?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces In the Balance What happens when multiple forces act on an object? The net force is the combination of all the forces acting on an object. When forces act in the same direction, they are added to determine net force. When forces act in opposite directions, the smaller force is subtracted from the larger force. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 5

What happens when multiple forces act on an object?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces What happens when multiple forces act on an object? A net force of zero means the forces are balanced and will not cause a change in motion. Unbalanced forces produce a change in an object’s motion. The object could change speed, direction, or both. This change in motion is called an acceleration. Acceleration is always in the direction of the net force. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 6

What happens when multiple forces act on an object?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces What happens when multiple forces act on an object? What forces are acting on this box? How could you determine whether the forces are balanced or unbalanced? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 7

It’s the Law What is Newton’s First Law of Motion?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces It’s the Law What is Newton’s First Law of Motion? Sir Isaac Newton described three laws of motion that explain the relationship between force and motion. Newton’s first law describes the motion of an object that has a net force of 0 N acting on it. The law states: An object at rest stays at rest, and an object in motion stays in motion at the same speed and direction, unless it experiences an unbalanced force. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 8

What is Newton’s First Law of Motion?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces What is Newton’s First Law of Motion? Newton’s first law is also called the law of inertia. Inertia is the tendency of all objects to resist any change in motion. The law of inertia explains why a chair will not slide across the floor unless a force pushes the chair, and why a golf ball will not leave the tee until a force pushes it off. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 9

What is Newton’s Second Law of Motion?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces What is Newton’s Second Law of Motion? Newton’s second law states: The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. force = mass × acceleration (F = ma) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 10

Newton’s Second Law and You
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces Newton’s Second Law and You Have you ever been on a roller coaster? Did you feel like you were going to float out of your seat when you went over a big hill? When a roller coaster is going up a hill, there are two important forces acting on you: the force of gravity and the upward force exerted by the roller coaster seat. Once the roller coaster starts down the other side of the hill, it accelerates downward, and your seat does not support your full weight. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 11

Newton’s Second Law and You
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces Newton’s Second Law and You The airplane’s path looks like a roller coaster hill. As the plane accelerates downward, the passengers lose contact with the plane and fall toward Earth. This condition is called free fall. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 12

It’s the Law What is Newton’s Third Law of Motion?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces It’s the Law What is Newton’s Third Law of Motion? Newton’s third law states: Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. In other words, all forces act in pairs. Action and reaction forces are present even when there is no motion. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 13

What is Newton’s Third Law of Motion?
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Forces What is Newton’s Third Law of Motion? Even though action and reaction forces are equal in size, their effects are different. An object can have multiple forces acting on it at once. When this happens, each force is part of a force pair. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 14

Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion

Down to Earth What is gravity?
Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion Down to Earth What is gravity? Gravity is a noncontact force of attraction between objects due to their mass. All objects on Earth fall at the same rate once air resistance and other factors are removed. Force = mass × acceleration due to gravity (F = mg), where g is about 9.8 m/s2. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 16

Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion
What is gravity? All matter has mass, so all matter is affected by gravity. All objects experience gravitational attraction to all other objects. Earth and other planets are round because of gravity. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 17

Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion
What is gravity? Some objects in space are not round because they are too small for gravity to shape them into a sphere. The paths of the planets, the sun, and our galaxy are determined by gravity. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 18

A Weighty Issue What determines the force of gravity?
Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion A Weighty Issue What determines the force of gravity? The law of universal gravitation states that all objects attract each other through gravitational force. The strength of the gravitational force is related to the mass of the objects and the distance between them. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 19

What determines the force of gravity?
Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion What determines the force of gravity? Gravitational force between two objects increases as the distance between their centers decreases. Gravitational force between two objects increases as their masses increase. Objects with greater mass have more attraction between them than objects with smaller mass have between them. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 20

Don’t Bring Me Down How does gravity keep objects in orbit?
Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion Don’t Bring Me Down How does gravity keep objects in orbit? Free fall is when gravity is pulling an object down and no other forces are acting on it. An object is in orbit when it travels around another object in space. Forward motion and free-fall motion combine to cause orbiting. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 21

How does gravity keep objects in orbit?
Unit 1 Lesson 4 Gravity and Motion How does gravity keep objects in orbit? Spacecraft, satellites, the moon, planets, and stars all complete orbits. Any object in curved motion is constantly changing direction. Gravity pulls objects toward the center of an orbital path. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 22

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