Presentation on theme: "19 th President of the United States By: Andrew Gardner."— Presentation transcript:
19 th President of the United States By: Andrew Gardner
Born in Delaware Ohio on October 4 th 1822. His Father died when he was ten weeks old. He had three siblings but his sister was the only one made it to adulthood. His uncle was a father figure to him and helped him through his early education.
He attended a preparatory school in Connecticut and studied Latin and Ancient Greek. 1842 Graduated from Kenyon College in Ohio and was his classes valedictorian. 1843 he enrolled at Harvard law school and graduated in 1845. Passed the Ohio bar in 1845 and opened his own law office.
Married Lucy Ware Webb in 1852. When he first meet her she was 18. She was the first presidential wife to have graduated from college. They had eight children together, but only five of them made it to adulthood. Nicknamed “Lemonade Lucy” because she wouldn’t serve alcohol at the white house.
Opened his own law firm in Sandusky Ohio and didn’t generate much business. Went to Cincinnati because there was more opportunities as a Lawyer. Did a a lot of criminal defense cases. Became an opponent against slavery, which led him to join the republican party.
Shortly after the civil war started he decided to fight for the union. He was a major in the 23 Ohio regiment. He was seriously injured in the battle of South Mountain in Maryland. By the end of the war he was promoted to the rank of major general. While in the war he was nominated for congress.
He was part of the newly formed republican party. When he was first elected to congress he refused to leave the war to take office. Was elected for a second term in congress and resigned a year into it to become Governor of Ohio. Served two terms as governor and then wanted to retire from politics. But the republican party had other plans. Returned to law for three years and then was elected governor again.
The republican party was spilt on two people for their presidential election, so they nominated Hayes as a compromise candidate. In the 1876 presidential election he got smoked in the popular vote by Samuel J. Tilden. However three states sent in conflicting ballots on who won their state. Congress appointed a 15 member counsel to decide the winner.
The counsel majority was republican, so they were going to give the votes to Hayes. The Democratic party agreed to back it if two things happened. Recall federal troops that were supporting reconstruction. At least one southern democrat will be appointed to Hayes cabinet. Hayes won the electoral votes 185 to 184.
Was inaugurated inside the white house. Day after had a public inauguration. Northern democrats were pissed and claimed he had stole the election.
Within the first year he did all the things that the democrats and republicans agreed to. He ended Reconstruction, even though he was a main supporter of it. Tried to promote equality in the south, but no success Tried to reform the system of Civil Service, but was unsuccessful. Hayes issued an executive order that forbade office holders from being required to make campaign contributions, or taking part in party politics.
Because certain officials wouldn’t obey his orders he kicked some out of office, one being a future president Chester Arthur. They wanted to strengthen the dollar by resuming the operation of minting silver coins. “Bland-Allison Act” Hayes was a supporter of the gold standard for the nations currency. So he vetoed the bill, but it still passed. Declined to run for a second term. And retired from politics.
Devoted himself to prison reform and educational issues. Was a trustee to three universities. First president of the John F. Slater Education Fund. First president of the National Prison Reform. Passed away at age 70 on January 17 th 1893 due to heart failure.