I can describe the life cycle of a star u Bell ringer – What type of magnitude is each definition referring to? 1. The true brightness of a star if all stars were at a uniform distance from Earth 1. Absolute magnitude 2. The brightness of a star as it appears from Earth with the naked eye. 1. Apparent magnitude Agenda: 1.bell ringer 2.notes- star life cycle 3.H-R diagram *** binders due tomorrow****
What is a Star? uAuA star is ball of plasma undergoing nuclear fusion. uSuStars give off large amounts of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. X-ray image of the Sun
Nebula – Birth of Star uSuStars are formed in a Nebula. uAuA Nebula is a very large cloud of gas and dust in space.
Protostars uGuGravity makes dense region of gas more compact uSuSoon take on a definite shape and are called protostars.
A new star!! u Once the core of a protostar reaches 10,000,000 o C, nuclear fusion begins and the protostar ignites. u The protostar now becomes a star. The bright spot is a new star igniting
Nuclear Fusion u Nuclear Fusion is the process by which two nuclei combine to form a heavier element. u New stars initially will fuse hydrogen nuclei together to form helium.
Main Sequence Stars u Once the star has ignited, it becomes a main sequence star. u Main Sequence stars fuse hydrogen to form helium, releasing enormous amounts of energy. u It takes about 10 billion years to consume all the hydrogen in a Main Sequence star.
Balancing Act The core of a star is where the heat is generated. The radiative and conductive zones move energy out from the center of the star. The incredible weight of of all the gas and gravity try to collapse the star on its core.
Unbalanced Forces As long as there is a nuclear reaction taking place, the internal forces will balance the external forces. When the hydrogen in a main sequence star is consumed, fusion stops and the forces suddenly become unbalanced. Mass and gravity cause the remaining gas to collapse on the core.
Red Giant u Collapsing outer layers cause core to heat up. u fusion of helium into carbon begins. u Forces regain balance. u Outer shell expands from 1 to at least 40 million miles across. ( 10 to 100 times larger than the Sun) u Red Giants last for about 100 million years.
Unbalanced Forces (again) u When the Red Giant has fused all of the helium into carbon, the forces acting on the star are again unbalanced. u The massive outer layers of the star again rush into the core and rebound, generating staggering amounts of energy.
Planetary Nebulas –Final stages u A cloud of gas that forms around a sun- like star that is dying
White Dwarfs u The pressure exerted on the core by the outer layers does not produce enough energy to start carbon fusion. u The core is now very dense and very hot. (A tablespoon full would weigh 5 tons!) u A white dwarf is about 8,000 miles in diameter. u After 35,000 years, the core begins to cool. Planetary nebula around a white dwarf star.
Black Dwarfs u As the white dwarf cools, the light it gives off will fade through the visible light spectrum, blue to red to back (no light). u A black dwarf will continue to generate gravity and low energy transmissions (radio waves).
9/11/2015 The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram u An H-R diagram plots stars according to their luminosity and temperature (or spectral class)
Red Supergiants u If the mass of a star is 3 times that of our sun or greater, then the Red Giant will become a Red Supergiant. u When a massive Red Giant fuses all of the helium into carbon, fusion stops and the outer layers collapse on the core. u This time, there is enough mass to get the core hot enough to start the fusion of carbon into iron.
Red Supergiants u Once fusion begins, the star will expand to be between 10 and 1000 times larger than our sun. ( Out to the orbit of Uranus )
Supernova u When a Supergiant fuses all of the Carbon into Iron, there is no more fuel left to consume. u The Core of the supergiant will then collapse in less than a second, causing a massive explosion called a supernova. u In a supernova, a massive shockwave is produced that blows away the outer layers of the star. u Supernova shine brighter then whole galaxies for a few years. Gas ejected from a supernova explosion
Neutron Star u Sometimes the core will survive the supernova. u If the surviving core has a mass of less than 3 solar masses, then the core becomes a neutron star. 6 miles in diameter
Black Holes u If the mass of the surviving core is greater than 3 solar masses, then a black hole forms. u A black hole is a core so dense and massive that it will generate so much gravity that not even light can escape it. Since light cant escape a black hole, it is hard to tell what they look like or how they work.
This has been a big cheeze production! If there are any additions or corrections this presentation needs in order to be accepted, you can reach me at the following: 724-983-1907 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Thanks, Chris Bobby