3 Religious Tolerance To Jews in Jerusalem Pax RomanaReligious Tolerance To Jews in Jerusalem“just keep the peace”For years Jews died while refusing to bow down and worship other gods (10 commandments) – Including the emperor…they came to an unspoken agreement…just stay quiet and we will not force you to worship the Emperor
4 Divisions of Judaism Pharisees – Sadducees – Common Jew – the most meticulous observers of the ancestral lawMost Jews were prepared to accept that claimSadducees –Sadducees did not believe in the authoritative nature of the ancestral lawsSadducees were more Hellenized and less traditionala great deal of following among the well-to-do and among the priestly classesCommon Jew –Plain simple folk: observe the Sabbath, who observe the holidays, the festivals, who go with the pilgrimage to temple, who observe the Jewish food laws, the Jewish rituals, believe in the Jewish God, follow the ways by which to make the life holy, follow the dictates of the Torah in a kind of simple plain way,The Jews did not “kill Jesus”. The common Jew was just a member of society.Roman Law and a few Jewish political leaders led the trials against Jesus.
5 Divisions of Judaism Essenes – Zealots – the Jews of Qumran, the Dead Sea Scrollsseparated themselves from the communityZealots –Began by Judas of Galilee **Included the Sicarii and other revolutionaries"We must destroy the Roman Empire or we must destroy Jews who cooperate with the Roman Empire. We will kill all collaborators, no King but God,"**Josephus the HistorianLooking for a “Messiah”
6 Descendant of King David Recruited 12 apostles a “person sent forth”
7 Believed in Jewish Tradition One GodAccepted 10 CommandmentsDefended the Prophets
9 Called himself the Son of God Politically, “son of God” was equal to Emperor
10 Called himself the Son of God Religious issue,“son of God” meant more than one god
11 Called himself the Son of God Proclaimed Spiritual Salvation
12 Called himself the Son of God Proclaimed Spiritual SalvationEternal Life
13 Some believed he was the Messiah Called himself the Son of GodProclaimed SpiritualSalvationEternal LifeSome believed he was the Messiah
14 Both Jewish Leaders and Roman Authority felt threatened Afraid of Zealot’s “Messiah”
15 Both Jewish Priests and Roman Authority felt threatened Crucified on Crossnot uncommon…most Roman Death Sentenceswere on the cross
16 Both Jewish Priests and Roman Authority felt threatened Crucified on CrossAccording to Tradition:Left his tombU.S. celebrates Christmas…most of eastern Christian world celebrate Easter as mostimportant Holiday.
17 Three Major Forms Ebonites - Jewish – Christian Gnostics – Greek word for KnowledgeDenied Jewish belief and old testament as a wholePauline Christianity –Spread Christianity to Gentiles (non-Jews)
18 Destruction of Jerusalem (70 AD) Zealot Revolt1,000,000 people were killed during the siegemajority were Jewish97,000 were captured and enslaved“…Men and women, old and young, insurgents and priests, those who fought and those who entreated mercy, were hewn down in indiscriminate carnage. The legionaries had to clamber over heaps of dead to carry on the work of extermination."
19 Destruction of Jerusalem NazarenesSeparated themselves from JudaismElected a Gentile (Marcus) to lead themAllowed them to exist in Roman Empire….
20 All People – Jew, Gentile, Slave, etc Written in Greek and LatinComfort in Message of Love