Presentation on theme: "Memory What would it be like to be John Kingsley?."— Presentation transcript:
Memory What would it be like to be John Kingsley?
Vocabulary Memory - the storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced. Encoding - the transforming of information so the nervous system can process it. Storage - the process by which information is maintained over a period of time. Retrieval - the process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory.
Sensory memory Iconic memory - up to 1 second Echoic memory - Up to 2 seconds Short-term Memory - limited capacity Up to 30 seconds only 5 to 9 items Long-term Memory - unlimited capacity Vocabulary
George Miller (1956) Miller writes the article The Magic Number Seven Posits the concept of “Chunking” Short Term Memory
Explicit Memory Recall - the ability to retrieve and reproduce information encountered earlier. Implicit Memory* Recognition - the ability to identify something you have previously observed. Ways to Measure Memory
Another way to measure memory is the method of “relearning” Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885-1913) Ebbinghaus learned a list of nonsense syllables and then he kept track of what he forgot and how long it took to relearn. Methods to Measure
Mean retentio n (saving s method) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 hour 20 minutes 9 hours24 hours2 days6 days31 days Retention interval Ebbinghaus’s Model
Which are Rudolph’s Friends? BlitzenDanderDancerMasher CupidDasherPrancerComet KumquatDonderFlasherPixie BouncerBlintzesTrixieVixen
These are the coconspirators. BlitzenDanderDancerMasher CupidDasherPrancerComet KumquatDonderFlasherPixie BouncerBlintzesTrixieVixen
Models of Memory Input Short- term Memory Long Term Memory The Information Processing Model Based on the computer.
Models of Memory Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)
Lets Review 1. Alberta solved a crossword puzzle a few days ago. She no longer recalls the words in the puzzle, but while playing a game of Scrabble with her brother, she unconsciously tends to form words that were in the puzzle, showing that she has __________ memories of some of the words. implicit
2. The three basic memory processes are ________________, storage, and ____________. 3. Do the preceding two questions ask for recall, recognition, or relearning? (and what about this question) What do you know? encodingretrieval Answer: The first two both measure recall, question three measures recognition
Dumbo, Surly, Horny, Wheezy, Mork. 4. If you know the story of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, can you remember which of the following are not among the seven? What do you know? Dopey, Dumbo, Sneezy, Sleepy, Surly, Bashful, Horny, Doc, Wheezy, Grumpy, Happy, Mork. How do you know?
5. One objection to traditional information-processing theories of memory is that unlike most computers, the brain performs many independent operations _______________________________. What Do You Know? simultaneously or in parallel
InRev7a InRev6bInRev6aInRev5bInRev5aInRev4bInRev2a MODELS OF MEMORY Model Levels of processing Transfer- appropriate processing Parallel distributed processing (PDP) Information processing Assumptions The more deeply material is processed, the better the memory of it. Retrieval is improved when we try to recall material in a way that matches how the material was encoded. New experiences add to and alter our overall knowledge base; they are not separate, unconnected facts. PDP networks allow us to draw inferences and make generalizations about the world. Information is processed in three stages: sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.
10080706050403020103912 Recall interval (in seconds) 18615 Percentage of syllables recalled 90 Based on a Brown - Peterson Procedure The procedure is to give the subject items to remember such as GRB, give them a followup task and see what they remember.
08_09 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Probability of recall 15151020 Position of word in list Recency effect Primacy effect
InRev7b InRev7aInRev6bInRev6aInRev5bInRev5aInRev4bInRev2a Factors Affecting Retrieval from Long-Term Memory Retrieval cues are effective only to the extent that they tap into information that was originally encoded. Retrieval is most successful when it occurs in the same environment in which the information was originally learned. Retrieval is most successful when people are in the same psychological state as when they originally learned the information In Freud’s theory, a defense mechanism in which impulses, memories or ideas are forcibly blocked from the conscious mind.. Process Encoding specificity Context dependence State dependence Repression Effect on Memory
08_19 Hippocampus The hippocampus is the primary location for short- term memory Thalamus acts as a relay station for sensory information Amygdala the emotional center which is very important in memory Cerebral cortex the cerebral cortex stores segments of memories in a variety of locations.
InRev7c InRev7bInRev7aInRev6bInRev6aInRev5bInRev5aInRev4bInRev2a IMPROVING YOUR MEMORY Use mnemonics. Look for meaningful acronyms. Try the method of loci. Follow the SQ3R system. Allocate your time to allow for distributed practice. Read actively, not passively. Take notes, but record only the main points. Think about the overall organization of the material. Review your notes as soon after the lecture as possible in order to fill in missing points. Write a detailed outline of your lecture notes rather than passively reading them. DomainHelpful Techniques Lists of items Textbook material Lectures Studying for exams