3 ElementsMatter that has the same composition and properties throughout is called an element.When different elements combine, other substances are formed.
4 Elements Contains only one particle Can exist in 3 states of matter solid, liquid, and gasPicture from
5 CompoundsBan DHMO?DHMO is dihydrogen monoxide.Evaluate the following link and decide if this potentially dangerous chemical should be prohibited.
6 CompoundsA compound is a substance whose smallest unit is made up of atoms of more than one element bonded together.Compounds often have properties that are different from the elements that make them up.Examples: Water, salt, sugar
7 Compounds General Rules: - Only write the name of the metallic element first- Write the number of atoms of any element in the compound in subscript(applies to only 2 or more atoms)- “ide” will always be written at the end of the non metal element
8 Compound PropertiesCompounds are formed by atoms of different elements. However, they do not have the properties as them.Because of chemical bonds, compounds cannot be broken down by physical means. They can only be broken down by chemical reaction or electricity.
9 How do we name compounds? Rule 1 A compound made up of two elements has a name that ends in -ide.• Sodium chloride — made up of the elements sodium and chlorine • Zinc oxide — made up of the elements zinc and oxygen • Carbon dioxide — made up of the elements carbon and oxygen
10 Fixed Composition of Compounds A compound is made up of different elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio.For example, water (H2O) is a compound made only by joining together two atoms of hydrogen to one atom of oxygen. That is, the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms in water is always 2 : 1.
11 Chemical Formula of a Compound A compound can be represented by a chemical formula.The chemical formula states • the types of atoms (i.e. elements) in the compound, • the ratio of the different atoms in the compound.Types of atoms: hydrogen, oxygenRatio of H to O = 2:1
12 How do we write chemical formula? Rule 1 For many compounds that contain both metallic and non-metallic elements, the symbol of the metallic element is written first.• calcium oxide (CaO) • sodium chloride (NaCl) • magnesium carbonate (MgCO3)
13 How do we write chemical formula? Rule 2 The number of atoms is written as a subscript, to the right of the atom’s symbol.• water (H2O, not H2O or 2HO)• magnesium carbonate (MgCO3, not MgCO3 or MgC3O)
14 How do we write chemical formula? Rule 3 It is not necessary to write the subscript ‘1’.• water (H2O, not H2O1) • calcium oxide (CaO, not Ca1O1)
15 How do we write chemical formula? Rule 4 The oxygen atom is usually written at the end of the formula.• water (H2O, not OH2) • carbon dioxide (CO2, not O2C) • nitric acid (HNO3, not O3NH)
16 Let’s try it…How many atoms of each element are there in the compound?Sulfuric Acid H2SO4__ Hydrogen__ Sulfur__ OxygenHydrogen Peroxide H2O2
17 And some more formulas… Carbon Dioxide CO2__ Carbon__ OxygenCarbon Monoxide COCalcium Carbonate CaCO3__ Calcium
18 Compound Review A pure compound has the same elements and the same amount of elements all of the timeElements are chemically combinedCompound properties are different from the properties of the elementsThey cannot be separated physicallyPhysical properties such as boiling point or melting point of pure substances are do not change
19 MixturesA mixture is a combination of two or more substances where there is no chemical combination or reaction.
20 Mixtures combine physically in no specific proportions. They just mix.
21 Solids, liquids and gases can be combined to create a mixture.
22 Mixture TypesMIXTURES MAY BE HOMOGENEOUS OR HETEROGENEOUS
23 Homogeneous Mixtures Homogeneous Mixtures: The prefix: "homo"- indicates the sameHave the same uniform appearance and composition throughout
25 What is a solution? A solution is a mixture of two or more substances. At least two substances must be mixed in order to have a solution
26 A solution has two parts The substance in the smallest amount and the one that DISSOLVES is called the SOLUTEThe substance in the larger amount is called the SOLVENT - it does the dissolvingIN most common instances water is the solvent
27 Examples of solutionsSalt waterClean AirVinegar
28 Heterogeneous Mixtures: The prefix: "hetero"- indicates differenceA heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly different substances or phasesTwo or more parts can be seen
30 Suspensions A SUSPENSION is a heterogeneous mixture of large particles These particles are visible and will settle out on standingExamples of suspensions are: fine sand or silt in water or Italian salad dressing