2 ProgressivismProgressivism- aimed to return control of the government to the people, restore economic opportunities, and correct injustices in American life.
3 Progressivism was a response to the problems about by the industrialization, urbanization, and immigration of the Gilded Age.
4 Main Goals of Progressive Reform Most Progressives saw dangers in the rising power of Big Business, violence with labor, concentration of wealth, political machines, unrest of the poor, moral decay, racism, and discrimination.Wanted to improve society and quality of life.Wanted to put government back into the hands of the people.Wanted to end abuse of power and social injustice.Wanted to regulate business and expand democracy.
5 State ReformRobert M. La Follette- progressive reform governor of Wisconsin and later Senator who worked to drive business from government.Efforts to limit child labor and working hours.Reforming elections:Initiative- legislature from the people on the ballot.Referendum- vote on an initiative.Recall- voters could force politicians to face another election before end of their term. Enabled removal of public officials.
6 Constitutional Amendments 16th Amendment- Income tax collected on individuals and businesses to make up for revenue lost on reduced tariffs.17th Amendment- allowed for the direct election of Senators
7 Women in Public LifeWomen began to work outside of the home usually out of economic necessity. They also joined clubs, went to college, and led reform movements such as the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) and the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).Susan B. Anthony was a leading proponent of women’s suffrage, the right to vote. Another leader of this movement who worked closely with Anthony was Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
8 MuckrakersJournalists who exposed the evils, inequities and injustices in government, business, and societyIda M. Tarbell- The History of the Standard Oil CompanyLincoln Steffens- The Shame of the Cities and The Struggle for Self-Government.Upton Sinclair- The Jungle exposed the unsanitary conditions of the meat packing industry. It led to the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
9 Three Progressive Presidents Theodore RooseveltWilliam Howard TaftWoodrow Wilson
10 Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt Square Deal- Govt. is to serve all people.Elkins Act (1903)- Stopped RR rebates and increased power of ICC.Hepburn Act (1906)- fixed RR rates and increased power of ICC.
11 Trust BustingNorthern Securities Case of 1904 (Morgan)Duke TobaccoSwift Meat-PackingStandard Oil Trust (Rockefeller)Consumer ProtectionPure Food and Drug Act (1906)Meat Inspection Act (1906)ConservationIncreased use of Forest Reserve Act 1891Newlands Reclamation Act 1902Creation of national Conservation Commission 1908Antiquities ActNew Nationalism (1912)- a radical program of reform calling for more govt. regulation . Big Business needed Big Govt. as an equalizer.
12 William Howard Taft Continuation of Square Deal Mann-Elkins Act increased powers of ICC to freeze rates of RR, telephones, etc.Continuation of trust-bustingU.S. Steel
13 Split in the Republican Party Payne- Aldrich Tariff 1908Pinchot-Ballinger Affair dispute over private development of lands in Alaska, non- forested lands.Speaker Joe Cannon dispute.ConservationBureau of MinesSet aside federal oil landsLaborFederal Children’s BureauDepartment of Labor8 hour workday for govt. workers
14 Woodrow WilsonNew Freedom- emphasized economic morality by trying to bring back conditions of free and fair competition; opposed all trusts; advocated smaller govt. and smaller business and an end to corruptionTrust-BustingClayton Anti-Trust Act exempted unionsFederal Trade Commission (FTC) monitored unfair trade practices of corporations.
15 Tariff Reduction16th Amendment- Income taxUnderwood-Simmons Tariff 1913 (possible due to 16th Amendment).Bank ReformFederal Reserve Act established fed. Banking system.ConservationNational Park ServiceSocial ReformKeating-Owens Act Child labor law later ruled unconstitutional10 Hour Act women labor law18th Amendment ProhibitionExpansion of Democracy17th Amendment People vote for U.S. Senators19th Amendment Women’s Suffrage