2 Why Change?From the 1890’s to 1920, a reform movement swept the nation as many individuals focused on improving the conditions within the United States.By 1900, the United States was a rich and powerful nation.Industrialization, urbanization, and immigration had transformed the nation into a major world economy.However, these changes to American society brought about many problems.The Progressive movement was made up of groups and individuals who worked to change the negative effects of industrialization and urbanization.
3 What Issues Needed to Be Fixed? Powerful monopolies restricted competition and controlled pricesLabor unrest and violenceUnhealthy and unsafe living and working conditionsIncreasing gap between living standards of the rich and poorUrban poverty, crime, congestion, and poor sanitationPolitical corruption and lack of government responsivenessAbuse of the nation’s natural resources
4 Effects of Business Practices The corporate world grew increasingly wealthy and more powerful.Industrial leaders believed that economic success demonstrated fitness to lead, that Social Darwinism explained why some were rich and others were poor.Those who succeeded earned their position, and those who failed deserved their failure.Social Darwinists believed that the government should not intervene in this process, also known as laissez-faire economics.
5 Conditions for Industrial Workers Working conditions for factory workers continued to be harsh.Many laborers worked 60-hour weeks on machinery, often in unsafe, unhealthy conditions.Getting hurt on the job often resulted in the worker being fired.Workers earned low wages, and women and children were paid even less than male workers.Workers had little security because their employers could fire them at any time.Soon, workers grew less tolerant of these terrible working conditions and began to form labor unions.Many businesses fired workers who attempted to form these labor unions, and strikes by the workers were often met with armed attacks from factory security guards.
8 Life for the Urban PoorThe gap between living standards of the rich and the poor increased widely during this period, especially in the cities.As the rich grew richer, building lavish townhouses in relatively safe and clean neighborhoods, the poor grew even poorer.The poor lived in urban slums characterized by poverty, crime, congestion, and poor sanitation.Housing in cities was segregated by social and economic status, by race, and often by ethnic background.
11 Who Were the Progressives? The Progressives set out to tackle the problems of their era.The Progressive movement was made up of many different movements, and the Progressives were many different kinds of Americans.The Progressives tended to be educated professionals like that of; doctors, lawyers, teachers, and clergy.All Progressives believed in the following ideas;Abuses of power by government and business could be endedNew developments in technology and science could be used to improve lifeBelief in strong government that could correct abuses and protect rights
12 MuckrakersMuckrakers helped bring reform issues to the attention of the public.Most were journalists and writers, but others were also artists and photographers.Muckrakers investigated and exposed corruption and injustice through articles in magazines.They also wrote novels dramatizing situations that demanded reform.Because of the effort of the Muckrakers, important laws were passed to protect the rights of consumers in the United States including; the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection ActThese laws were passes due to the unsanitary conditions within the meat-packing industry exposed by Upton Sinclair in his novel The Jungle
13 Muckrakers______________-The Jungle ___________-How the other Half Lives ___________-The Octopus _______________-History of the Standard Oil Company _______________-The Shame of the Cities__________and ________conditions in the ___________industryConditions of the _______living in________._____________railroad practicesRuthless practices of____________________________Corruption in city government
14 Upton Sinclair’s- The Jungle This novel exposed the unsanitary working conditions in the meatpacking industry.This novel caused the government to pass two important laws protecting the rights of consumers:1.) Pure Food and Drug Act2.) Meat Inspection Act
17 Community Improvement -Other reformers founded groups intended to correct the problems of society.-In Chicago, Jane Addams started Hull House, a settlement house designed to provide education and services to the poor
18 Temperance MovementThe temperance movement, which opposed the sale of alcoholic beverages, began in the 1820’s.Over the years, its chief goal became prohibition- outlawing the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.Under the leadership of Francis Willard, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union was a strong advocate for prohibition.These individuals believed that through prohibition, problems of disease and poverty could be eased, family life improved, and the national economy made more productive.The temperance movement led to national prohibition with the passing of the 18th Amendment, which banned the manufacturing, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States as of 1920.
19 African American Progressives Booker T. WashingtonFormer slave and founder of Tuskegee Institute, urged African Americans to get vocational training in order to establish themselves financially.This strategy was thought to increase the self-esteem of African Americans and earn the respect of the white society.W.E.B. Du BoisA Harvard educated professor, shared Washington’s view of the importance of an education, however Du Bois believed in a broad, liberal education rather than a vocational one.Started the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which further fought for the rights of African Americans.