Presentation on theme: "First 3 Steps to conduct research"— Presentation transcript:
1 First 3 Steps to conduct research 1. Generate idea2. Review literatureReview related theories3. Develop research questions Develop testable hypotheses
2 Steps to conduct research -- continued 4. Choose research design (experimental, non-, quasi-, etc.)# and timing of observations,quantitative, qualitative)5. Decide what to observeSelect variablesand measures
3 Steps to conduct research -- continued 6. Choose study populationSelect sampling techniqueSelect sample7. Consider ethics of study8. Pretest measuresPilot test study
4 Steps to conduct research -- continued 9. Conduct study / Collect data10. Analyze data(quantitative: use descriptive & inferential statistics)Interpret results11. Report and present results
5 Sources of research ideas Casual observation of world around usSystematic observationyou or research reportsTheoryNeed to solve practical problemReading the literature
6 Choosing a research topic Is it interesting to you?Is it do-able? Can it be done over the next few months?What is already known about this area?What are the unanswered questions in this area?Why is your study important?
7 Research QuestionA broad open-ended question your research tries to answerResearch questions are “How” “Why” “What” questions(Avoid “yes” “no” questions)Ask a question that can be answeredempirical question rather than metaphysicial one
8 RESEARCH QUESTIONSWhat are UHM students’ attitudes toward the proposed legalization of gambling in HI and its possible effects?What factors influence UHM students choice of contraceptives?
9 Research questions are central Your entire research project revolves around the research question(s).Your study should be designed to answer the research question(s)(internal validity)
10 Research Hypotheses A prediction statement of the outcome of a study “Educated guess”May describe relationship between variablesA specific statement that can be tested to which you can answer with “yes” or “no” based on the data you collect(Don’t use “why” “how” “what” questions)Your research tries to find out whether your hypothesis is supported or rejected
11 Research questionsHow are traffic cameras impacting safety?How does the public feel the traffic cameras affect their driving?HypothesesDrivers slam on their brakes when they see a speed van on the road.The speed cameras reduce the amount of speeding.
12 Research questionHow do living environments affect college students’ sexual behavior?HypothesisCollege students who live on their own (in dorms or apts.) are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior.
13 Research questionWhat are UHM students attitudes toward the proposed legalization of gambling in Hawai’i and its possible effects?HypothesesUHM students predict that prostitution would increase with the legalization of gambling in Hawai’i.UHM students think the legalization of gambling would bring more tourists to Hawai’i.
14 Homework 1: Possible research questions & research hypotheses (6 points) Due: January 23Write research questions you might like to studyList at least 1 possible hypothesis under each question.E.g., Res ? How do UH students cope with stress?Hyp. 1: UH students are most likely to report that they exercise to cope with stress.Hyp 2: At least 50% of male UH students will report that they listen to music to cope with stress.
15 Types of Hypotheses Non-directional Hypotheses Directional Hypotheses Null Hypotheses
16 Non-directional Hypotheses State what variable has an impact on DV, but does not say what kind of impact it hasExample:Colors of clothing affect people’s mood
17 Directional Hypotheses State what variable has an impact on DV and say what kind of impact it isExample:Bright color of clothing uplifts people’s mood
18 Null HypothesesState that there is no relationship between two variablesThe opposite of the non-directional research hypothesisExample:Colors of clothing has no impact on people’s mood
19 HypothesesThe speed cameras have no affect on the amount of speeding. (null hypothesis)The speed cameras affect the amount of speeding. (non-directional hypothesis)The speed cameras reduce the amount of speeding. (directional hypothesis)
20 ExampleResearch Question:What influences the growth of plants?
21 Example: Hypotheses Non-Directional Hypothesis Directional Hypothesis The amount of sunshine affects the growth of plantsDirectional HypothesisThe amount of sunshine enhances the growth of plantsNull HypothesisThe amount of sunshine has no influence on the growth of plants
22 In-class exerciseWrite a null, non-directional, and directional hypotheses for each and label:1. Peers influence whether a person will binge drink or not.2. Female UH students prefer to be under their current body weight.3. UH M students will pay more to attend a nightclub with live music over DJ music.4. College students that do smoke would prefer to date someone that does not smoke.