Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution. Setting the Stage 1788 King Louis XVI needs cash France bankrupt Fighting the British during the 7 Years War (French and Indian."— Presentation transcript:
Setting the Stage 1788 King Louis XVI needs cash France bankrupt Fighting the British during the 7 Years War (French and Indian War) Supported America during the American Revolution Upkeep on Palace of Versailles Had to call a meeting of the Estates General to raise taxes
Ripe Conditions for Revolution Debt. Increased taxes. Poor harvests and steady economic decline led to food shortages - people flocked to Paris demanding bread Spread of Enlightenment Ideas American Revolution
Louis Calls the Estates-General Estates General Similar to Parliament Representatives from each of the 3 classes of French society 1 st Estate - Clergy 2nd Estate - Nobles 3rd Estate – Everyone else - bourgeoisie - artists, farmers, Peasants, city workers etc
Estates General 1 st Estate has 300 members and one vote 2 nd Estate has 300 members and one vote 3 rd Estate has 600 members and one vote How do you feel about this if you are in the 3 rd Estate??? WHY?
Demand for Change 3 rd Estate wants to change voting procedures. Want to establish a National Assembly where EACH representative has a vote Wanted to create a limited monarchy
What is the Third Estate? 1. What is the Third State? Everything. 2. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. 3. What does it want to be? Something.... Pamphlet written by Abbe Sieyes in 1789
The Tennis Court Oath Rumors spread that the King is ready to bring in an army from Austria to end the Estates General Meeting Third Estate goes to meet When they found they were locked out of their meeting place, they met on a tennis court. Took an oath to meet regularly no matter what until France had a real constitution.
Bastille Day On July 14 th, 1789 Parisians stormed the Bastille, a prison for political prisoners. Free seven prisoners and collected gun powder and weapons to protect the National Assembly. Became a symbol of the Revolution. It is still a huge holiday for France today.
The Storming of the Bastille – July 14 1789 (Start of the Revolution!)
Revolts Various factions took to the streets of Paris and the provinces. Marquis de Lafayette Headed the National Guard, a middle class army formed in response to government troops arriving in Paris. “Tricolor.” – New National symbol Women march from Paris to Versailles demanding that the king return to the capital to help the people. They demanded food and bread Force Louis and his family to live in Paris
National Assembly Reforms The National Assembly, in its first efforts to pass a constitution set forth the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It abolished feudalism It established natural rights and demanded an end to the estate discrimination. Passed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy Took church lands and put the church under government control. The Pope, Pope Pius VI condemned the French Revolution. They passed the Constitution of 1791, which established a limited monarchy and encouraged free trade.
Flight of the Nobles Louis and Marie try to flee France, but are caught and returned to Paris. Emigres (nobles, clergy an others) flee France and tell horror stories of the events there, leading enlightened despots to condemn the revolution and begin to mass armies against a possible French threat.
NATIONALISM!!! Prussia and Austria vowed to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed. The Commune (revolutionaries) get the Legislative Assembly to accuse Louis XVI of plotting against Constitution of 1791. Revolutionary troops arrive in Paris from Marseillaise to fight invading armies. The Monarchy officially suspends the office of the king on August 10, 1792.
La Marseillaise Let's go children of the fatherland, The day of glory has arrived! Against us tyranny's Bloody flag is raised! (repeat) In the countryside, do you hear The roaring of these fierce soldiers? They come right to our arms To slit the throats of our sons, our friends! Refrain Grab your weapons, citizens! Form your batallions! Let us march! Let us march! May their impure blood Water our fields!
Declaration of the Rights of Man National Assembly votes to eliminate all classes, titles, nobility. Say nobles and clergy must pay taxes too Serves as a basis for French Constitution “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
Meanwhile: The Peasants get out of hand Riots soon spread to countryside Peasants attack nobles in their houses. Kill many nobles Nobles and Clergy living in fear
The Reign of Terror Begins (1793-1794) King Louis XVI attempts to flee the country with his wife Marie Antoinette Captured and brought back Radicals (Jacobins) getting more say in how the government should be run King Executed in 1793
War! 1792-1793 Other nations of Europe worry that revolution in France will spread to their countries. Austria, Prussia (Germany), Spain, Britain, wage war on France. French fight them off Radicals gain even more power
We must take extreme measures to save our beloved France! Execute any traitors!
The Jacobins – The Radicals Robespierre, Danton and Marat Three leaders of the Revolution and Reign of Terror. Marat is a fiery orator who calls for more and more executions Eventually murdered in his own bathtub
Radicals Gain Control Robespierre and the “Committee for Public Safety” Begin hunting down all those seen as a threat to the Revolution Supported by the sans culottes – urban workers No room for disagreement Radicals seek to create a “Republic of Virtue” based on reason and Rousseau Atheism encouraged All signs of monarchy and religion removed
Robespierre “If the source of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the sources of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; and terror, without which virtue is powerless.” — Robespierre We must kill all those who are a threat to the revolution!
Reign of Terror “Reign of Terror” Begins Around 20,000 people will be sent to the guillotine Nobles, peasants, workers, anyone Robespierre saw as a threat to the revolution
End of Reign of Terror Thermidorian Reaction Robespierre accuses Danton of treason. Danton has “gone soft” Robespierre orders Danton executed 1794 – National Convention feels Robespierre has gone over the line He is arrested, tried, convicted and executed
Impact of the Revolution Monarchy is gone Old feudal customs are gone Declaration of the Rights of Man New feeling of nationalism in France Universal Male Suffrage Land seized from nobles and Church turned over to peasants France becomes democratic country The Directory 2 house legislature and committee of 5 Directors Inefficient, quarrelsome, France has LARGE, experienced army Rising young star in that army – Napoleon Bonaparte