10-2 Learning Objectives 1.Describe the process of communication. 2.Distinguish between hearing and listening. 3.Describe techniques for communicating effectively. 4.Identify barriers to communication and suggest ways to avoid them. 5.Distinguish between verbal and nonverbal messages, and name types of verbal messages. 6.Identify the directions in which communication can flow in an organization. 7.Distinguish between formal and informal communication in an organization. 8.Discuss the role of the grapevine in organizations.
10-3 How Communication Works Simply talking or writing does not guarantee effective communication Some rules of good communication: Don’t communicate in anger Remain open to feedback Model effective leadership Don’t try to hold large-group discussions via e-mail Never forget that e-mail is not private
10-5 Hearing versus Listening The receiver of a message must listen to it rather than just hear it. Hearing means the brain is registering sounds. Listening means paying attention to what is being said and trying to understand the full message. When you want communication to work, you need to make sure that people are decoding messages (listening) as well as sending them.
10-6 Communicating Effectively Communicate from the receiver’s viewpoint Learn from feedback Use strategies for effective listening Overcome barriers to communication Be prepared for cultural differences
10-7 Ten Rules for Good Listening 1.Remove distractions and give the speaker your full attention. 2.Look at the speaker most of the time. 3.When the speaker hesitates, give a sign of encouragement such as a smile or a nod. 4.Try to hear the main point and supporting points. 5.Distinguish between opinions and facts. 6.Control your emotions. 7.Be patient, do not interrupt. 8.Take notes. 9.At appropriate times, ask questions to clarify your understanding. 10.Restate what you think the speaker’s point is, and ask whether you heard correctly.
10-8 Barriers to Communication Information overload Give employees only information that will be useful to them. Be sure that employees are paying attention. Misunderstandings Word choices Cultural differences Inferences versus facts
10-9 A Drawing That May Be Perceived in More Than One Way
10-10 Barriers to Communication (continued) Biases related to perception Prejudices Biases in paying attention Perceptions The ways people see and interpret reality. Prejudices Negative conclusions about a category of people based on stereotypes.
10-11 Types of Messages Nonverbal messages We continuously send and receive messages through our facial expressions, posture, and other nonverbal clues. Types of nonverbal messages: Gestures Posture Tone of voice Facial expression Silence People from different cultures have different nonverbal vocabularies.
10-12 Types of Messages (continued) Verbal messages Oral communication Conversations Interviews Meetings Formal presentations Telephone calls Written communication Memos Letters Reports E-mail Bulletin board notices Posters
10-14 Technology and Message Types Use written communication when: You can wait for the receiver to read it. You can’t afford to bring people together. The message is complex. The information is more factual than sensitive. You won’t be embarrassed for others to read the message. You need a record of the communication. The receiver is able to read your language and use your technology.
10-15 Technology and Message Types (continued) Use oral communication when: The message is sensitive. You need immediate feedback. The receiver might have difficulty reading. You want to build a relationship or see reactions.
10-16 Choosing the Most Effective Message Type Time and cost limits Complexity and sensitivity of the issue Need for a record Need for feedback Capabilities of the receiver
10-17 Direction of Communication in Organizations Downward communication Upward communication Lateral communication
10-18 Formal and Informal Communication Formal communication is organizational communication that is work-related and follows the lines of the organization chart. Informal communication is organizational communication that is directed toward individual needs and interests and does not necessarily follow formal lines of communication.
10-19 Gossip and Rumors People use gossip to indicate what behavior is acceptable. Rumors are explanations, sometimes unfounded, for what is going on around us. Supervisors should avoid rumors and gossip, however he or she should be prepared to investigate stories they may hear, but with an open mind.
10-20 The Grapevine Regularly use the tools of formal communication to inform employees of the organization’s version of events. Be open to discussion; be someone employees will turn to when they want a rumor confirmed or denied. Use performance appraisal interviews as a way to listen to employees as well as to give them information. Have a trusted employee act as a source of information about the messages traveling the grapevine. When it is necessary to clear the air, issue a formal response to a rumor.
10-21 Summary The communication process occurs when people send and receive information. Hearing occurs when the brain registers sounds; listening occurs when the person who hears sounds also tries to understand the message. Effective communication is most likely to occur when the parties communicate from the receiver’s viewpoint, learn from feedback, use strategies for effective listening, and overcome barriers to communication. Barriers to communication include information overload, misunderstandings, perceptions and prejudices, and biases related to perception.
10-22 Summary (continued) Verbal messages consist of words. Nonverbal messages are messages encoded without words, such as facial expressions, gestures, or tone of voice. Organizational communication may flow upward, downward, or laterally. Formal communication is related to accomplishing the goals of the organization. Informal communication tends to be aimed at achieving personal, rather than organizational, objectives. The grapevine is the path of much of the organization’s informal communications, including gossip and rumors.