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Chemical Bonding.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Bonding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Bonding

2 Compounds Compounds are substances made up of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Electrically neutral (equal numbers of positive and negative charges) Atoms combine by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons to form chemical bonds Atoms achieve greater stability in bonding with other atoms

3 3 Types of bonding Metallic (metal + metal) Ionic (metal + nonmetal)
Covalent/molecular (nonmetal + nonmetal)

4 Metallic Bonding and Compounds
Metallic Bonds Characteristics of Compounds Electrons are shared Electrostatic (positive-negative) attraction between cations and a “sea” of free floating valence electrons Metal + metal Conduct electricity and heat Usually solid at room temp (range of m.p./b.p.) Not soluble in water Luster is shiny Malleable and ductile

5 Metallic Bonding and Compounds
Alloy: a mixture (usually a solid) that contains two or more elements and has the characteristics of a metal Compositions of Selected Alloys stainless steel % Fe, 18% Cr, 8% Ni, .18% C coinage silver 90% Ag, 10% Cu plumber’s solder 67% Pb, 33% Sn brass % Cu, 33% Zn 18 carat gold % Au, 10-20% Ag, 5-15% Cu nichrome 60% Ni, 40% Cr *note that the elements in an alloy are not present in specific ratios (the percentages may be adjusted)

6 Ionic Bonding and Compounds
Characteristics of Compounds electrons are transferred electrostatic attraction between cation and an anion (ions) atoms are often less stable than ions metals lose electrons to form positive ions to achieve stability  cations example: sodium  non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions to achieve stability  anions example: chlorine metal + nonmetal called “salts” solids at room temperatures (high m.p. and b.p.) may dissolve in water to form strong electrolytes conduct electricity when molten (liquid at high temperature) brittle crystalline, NOT molecules they form 3D crystal arrays of alternating anions and cations

7 Covalent Bonding and Compounds
Covalent Bonds Characteristics of Compounds electrons are shared electrostatic attraction between electrons and nuclei nonmetal + nonmetal solids/liquid/gas at room temperatures (variable m.p. and b.p.) may dissolve in water but doesn’t form an electrolyte doesn’t conduct electricity when solid or molten (liquid at high temperature) forms molecules

8 Covalent Bonding and Compounds
unshared pair - valence electrons that are not shared in bonds single bond - only a single pair of electrons are shared between two atoms (see examples above) double bond - two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms examples: formaldehyde- H2CO oxygen- O2 triple bond - three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms examples: nitrogen N2 ethyne, or acetylene, C2H2

9 Classify each compound as:
KCl Brass (Cu + Zn + Sn) CO2 NO2 Sterling silver (Ag + Cu) SnF2 CH4 MgCl2 NH3 LiF M- Metallic I- Ionic C- Covalent

10 Chemical Formulas Chemical formula- what elements it contains and the ratio of the atoms of those elements Example: NaCl (sodium chloride) Contains 1 sodium atom and 1 chloride atom Example: H2O (water) The formula is a combination of the symbols H and O and the subscript number 2 Contains 2 Hydrogen atoms and 1 Oxygen atom

11 Chemical Formulas Subscript means “written below” and is written after the symbol. It tells how many atoms of that element are in one unit of the compound. If the symbol has no subscript, the unit contains only one atom of that element. Familiar Name Chemical Name Formula Lye Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Ammonia NH3 Sand Silicon Dioxide SiO2 Battery Acid Sulfuric Acid H2SO4

12 Octet Rule Octet Rule: atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of valence electrons Think of ionic bond formation as a process: electrons are lost/gained to achieve a stable octet of electrons ions form ions brought together by electrostatic attractions. Lewis Dot Diagrams: Recall that a way to show and emphasize an atom’s valence electrons is to draw the element’s dot diagram Li Be N O Cl Si Ar

13 Empirical vs. Molecular Formulas
empirical formula shows the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound always used for ionic compounds can be useful for partially describing covalent compounds example: Ca2+ and F- combine to form CaF2 molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms in a single molecule cannot be used for ionic compounds examples: sucrose- C12H22O11 and glucose- C6H12O6 Questions: What is the empirical formula for sucrose? What is the empirical formula for glucose? ________

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