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Presentation on theme: "MUSLIM SOCIETY IN SUBCONTINENT & THE DOWNFALL OF MUSLIM RULE"— Presentation transcript:

Lecture 1 & 2

2 CHAPTER 1 Muslim Society in Subcontinent
ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

3 Formation & Evolution of Muslim Society
Contact between the Indo-Pak and Arabian Peninsula from ancient times. Indian spices and other articles were in great demand in Egypt and Southern Europe. India  Yemen  Egypt & Europe Formation & Evolution of Muslim Society ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

4 ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

5 First Major Conflict The first major conflict took place between the people of the Subcontinent and the Muslim Arabia. During trade, when some traders died in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) the local ruler sent their widows and orphans to Arabia with gifts and letters of goodwill for Hajjaj Bin Yousuf ( ), the Governor of Basra. Unfavorable winds drove them to the shore of Debul (modern Bhambor in Thatta). Pirates attacked, looted the gifts and took the Muslim women and children as captives. Hajjaj protested to Dahir, the ruler of Sindh ( ) and demanded the release of prisoners. Raja Dahir didn’t show any concern and said he had no control over the pirates. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

6 Hajjaj sought permission from the Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik to avenge the dishonor and offered to pay all the costs of the expedition himself. He picked 6000 army officers and sent them under the leadership of his nephew Muhammad bin Qasim. Route was: Shiraz  Makran Debul In 712 Dahir was defeated and Sindh came under the Muslim rule. Muhammad Bin Qasim expanded his conquest upto Multan. Later, he was called back home and due to personality differences, he was killed by the new caliph, Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik. Conquest of Sindh ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

7 Conquest of Sindh The people were greatly impressed by the justice of the Muslims. Their moral integrity, benevolence, honesty and polished behavior attracted many people to the new religion (Islam). From the time of Ghaznavids, Persian replaced Arabic. The law of the state was the Shariah. 5 different Dynasties ( AD) Mughul rule ( ) Ghaznavids ( ) Ghurids ( ) Foundations of Muslim rule, Delhi was the capital Central Asian by origin, Ruled area that is now Pakistan Central Asian by origin, Ruled area that is now Pakistan ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

8 India before the Advent of Islam
Hindus followed Vedas (knowledge). By 900 BC Brahmins (high priests) emerged in India who institutionalized sacrifices and caste division. Gautama Buddha (Buddhism) and Vardhamana (Jainism) rejected the tyranny of caste-system and taught human equality. Imperial Guptas rose in the 4th Century AD and at that time priest and prince were bound together but they declined by 6th Century. Muslims established power in Northern India in the 12th Century. Between the Guptas and the Muslim era, was the ‘period of decline’ both politically and socially. India before the Advent of Islam ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

9 India before the Advent of Islam
Political Conditions: states were divided in provinces that were headed by Rajas. Weak king were overthrown by ambitious rulers and new dynasties were created and no ruler had an extensive empire for himself. Religious Conditions: 3 religions prevailed i.e. Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism- the dominant religion. There was perfect religious freedom and no communal clashes. Social conditions: the Hindu society was divided in castes and sub-castes- the Brahmin, the Khatri, the Vesh and the Sudar. Birth of a girl child was not cherished in the family. Women were considered inferior to men. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

10 India before the Advent of Islam
Economic conditions: there were two categories: Kings, landlords, provincial governors, and the rich Poor people who lived simple lives Education and literature: people were well educated and there were famous centers of learning. Architecture: Hindus expressed their creativity in temple architecture. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

11 Comparative Analysis of Hindu and Muslim Society
Social difference: Hindus were divided in four castes, those who disregarded them were called Malachcha (outcast barbarians). The Muslim society considers man as the highest creation of Allah talah and insists on the equality of human beings before the law. Religious difference: the Hindu society emphasized on the possession of power (idol Vishnu) and wealth (idol Lakshmi) which encouraged people to exploit each other and even sacrifice human beings. Islam teaches unity (tauheed) in thought, behavior and living. Political difference: Muslim society believed that the role of a Muslim is to establish moral values derived from the Holy Quran and Sunnah. To Hindus, world is maya, an illusion which leads them to pursue wealth. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

12 Comparative Analysis of Hindu and Muslim Society
Conceptual difference: for Hindus, their war and peace are for self preservation and personal ego. For the Muslims, their war and peace are to establish the Kingdom of Allah talah. Cultural difference: the Muslims considered Urdu as their language, whereas the Hindus had their own language Hindi. Their history was different too and so was their philosophical past. Comparative Analysis of Hindu and Muslim Society ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

13 The Impact of Islam on the Indian Society
Religion: Islam appealed to many Hindus and they embraced it. Some Hindu leaders were highly influenced by Islamic norms and they started advocating its teaching of love, equality, brotherhood and Oneness of Allah talah. Religion & Political system: there was a good improvement in the condition of the Sudars. The Mughul government established commercial relations with the European nations and allowed them to install factories. New weapons, techniques of warfare were introduced. The Impact of Islam on the Indian Society ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

14 The Impact of Islam on the Indian Society
Culture & Civilization: mass education became the norm. inhumane burning of woman with the corpse of her husband (Sati) was discouraged. Muslims contributed many ideas in the field of gardening. New fashions were introduced by Muslims. Some well known Mughul dishes were introduced like Pulao, Quorma, Sheermal, Zarda, Biryani, Kababs. Language & Literature: Persian was seriously studied by Hindus and Muslims alike. Arabic, Turkish and Persian were intermixed with local languages which gave birth to Urdu. Lots of literary works began producing throughout the country. The Impact of Islam on the Indian Society ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

15 The Impact of Islam on the Indian Society
Art and Architecture: Calligraphy, floral designs and geometrical patterns were created by Muslims. The well- known rag, khayal was invented by a Muslim ruler of Jaunpur. Amir khusrau ( ) invented Sitar, 17 tones of Dholak and invented purbi rag. Kathak or Darbari dance was also invented by Muslims. History: Muslims introduced the art of historiography. Muslims believed in copying and circulating their works on a large scale whereas the Hindus kept theirs a secret. The Impact of Islam on the Indian Society ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

16 Bhakti Movement A religious reform against the ritualistic religion of Vedas. According to them Ram and Rahim, Keshwar and Karim, Kaaba and Kailash, Quran and Puran very often go together. It made rapid progression during the 8th to 16th Centuries. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

17 Role of Ulema and Sufis in Organizing the Muslim Society
Ulemas and Sufis played a vital role in spreading Islam in the subcontinent. The Sufis organized themselves into silsilahs (orders) and established Khanqahs (hospices). The 4 sufi orders that contributed significantly in India are: Chistiyah Shorwardhiyah Qadriyah Naqshbandia Renowned Sufis include: Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti Ajmeri, Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Shaikh Abdul Haque, Shah Waliullah, Shah Abdul Aziz and Syed Ahmad Shaheed. Haji Shariatullah started Faraizi Movement and asked Muslims to give up un-Islamic customs. Titu Mir (Mr Nidar Ali) helped the suffering Muslims of Bengal. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

18 CHAPTER 2 Downfall of Muslim Rule
May Bahadur Shah Zafar ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

19 Downfall of Muslim Rule
By 18th century Europe was ruled by strong monarchies, Muslim power showed a rapid decline Even so after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. The cause of decline was disintegration of empire and loss of feeling of solidarity. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

20 Cause of the downfall of Muslim Society
Ignorance of religious beliefs: Akbar raised Hindus to positions of influence in the court. Although Muslims were the dominant group in the state, India had ceased to be a Muslim empire. Lack of solidarity: despite the concessions and privileges, Hindus remained hostile to the Muslims. Centralization of the mughul administration: a lot of conspiracies encircled the rulers during the later Mughuls. No law of succession: there was no law of succession to the throne, therefore every son of a deceased king felt he had a right to claim the throne, which led to bloody warfare. Weakness of character: there was a crisis in Muslim character; incompetence, short-sighted selfishness, corruption, and other evils were prevalent. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

21 Cause of the downfall of Muslim Society
Educational decline: there was no creative activity in the field of science or in the realm of thought and ideas. The English and European nations were making much progress, and the supremacy of Muslims was being pushed back. Military weaknesses: there was stagnation in developing new warfare. No trainings were given for use of artillery. No naval force: Muslim rulers neglected and were uninterested to the potentials of sea-power. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

22 Establishment of British Rule
British East India Company was trying to gain ground since 1600 AD. The English took advantage of the unsettled conditions of India and consolidated themselves politically. They used improved arms with better knowledge of the warfare, and Indian rulers felt victim in this entanglement. India was conquered. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

23 Causes of English Success
English Company was a private company. This fact created a zeal in them to work hard because if they slackened, they would be ruined. The company became successful and it even gave loans to the British company. Naval supremacy was the other cause. The English had their naval base in Bombay and could repair their ships there as well. They had 3 important places in India: Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. These were far off from one another and thus could not be conquered by their enemy at the same time. They entered India from the right quarter starting from Bengal. It had a productive soil and a lot of gold. They were fortunate in having many competent men like Lord Clive, Lord Lawrence and Sir Eyre Coote. They always helped one another and that was the secret of their success. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

24 The War of Independence
The Great Uprising of is one of the important chapters of the struggle for freedom of Indians from foreign domination. East India Company had ruled parts of India for over a hundred years ( ). Political, economical, social, religious and military reasons were behind the outburst in The cause was just but the means to achieve the objective were poor. The War of Independence ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

25 Causes of the War of Independence
Political causes: Dalhousie’s policy inflamed the Muslims. Although Bahadur Shah Zafar was receiving pension from the British and his authority was confined only to Red Fort of Delhi, after his death, his successor would have to vacate the palaces and move to the Qutub Sahib in Delhi. This proposal hurt the Muslims. Economical causes: the economic policies of the Company were designed to crush the local industries especially silk and cotton textiles. Imported British goods ruined the Indian industries and created unemployment. Heavy agricultural taxes were imposed. Great poverty spread. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

26 Causes of the War of Independence
Social causes: the inequality and imperious attitude of British officers in their dealings with the Indians causes disaffection in various sectors. Religious causes: Christian missionaries expanded their activities. They even went to Hindu and Muslim fairs to preach Christianity. The English interfered in the religious activities of the Hindus and Muslims. Military causes: the salary of an English soldier was far higher than that of a native one. The British soldiers retired at the age of 70 and the Indian retired at 55. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

27 Causes of the War of Independence
The cartridge incident flamed the discontent and activated the revolt. A new rifle, named Enfield, was introduced in January Its cartridges were smeared with grease and had to be bitten at one end by the user. It came to be known that this grease was made of fats of cows and pigs, one sacred to the Hindus and the other forbidden to the Muslims. By the time the mistake was discovered, it was too late. Many troops refused to use the cartridges. They were tried and publicly sentenced for a 10 years rigorous imprisonment on 9 May 1857 and were publicly disgraced. Causes of the War of Independence ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

28 Causes of Failure of the War of Independence
Localization of war: some states were undisturbed. The Gorkhas and the people of Punjab sided with the British. Lack of leadership: the leaders of difference forces lacked necessary skills to take charge of the whole war. The English had good leaders and the suppressed the revolt in a systematic way. Deficiency of modern weapons: the technical side of the rebels were very weak. The British had up to date ammunitions. Lack of unity and financial resources: during the war, farmers destroyed the revenue records of the money lenders thus making the latter hostile to the revolt. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

29 Causes of Failure of the War of Independence
Lack of direction: the rebels had no future program to be implemented after the capture of power. This caused the zamindars to create dissatisfaction among the rebels. Deficiency of inherent system: India had feudal system where as Britain was a capitalistic economy which created patriotism among the English. This was reason why there was no British who went against his country whereas many Indians, princes, generals and merchants were loyal to the British. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

30 Consequences of the War
End of the East India Company: the Government of India was taken over by the Crown. The Rajput, Marhatta and Sikh Chiefs had greatly benefited them during the war. These were rewarded handsomely. Change in the land policy of the government: Zamindars were treated well and were given titles like Honorary Magistrates. Change in the attitude of the British: the anger of the British fell on the Muslims , countless of them were hanged, their property was confiscated and they were suppressed. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

31 Consequences of the War
Change in the function of government: the Act of 1861 restored legislative power to the Governments of Madras and Bombay. Reorganization of the army: various groups were rearranged to prevent sentiments of national unity growing among themselves. Rift in the Hindu-Muslim unity: the collapse of the revolt created a misunderstanding between them. Set-back to Muslim renaissance (new beginning): the cultural developments of Muslims were annihilated whereas in Calcutta, the Hindu renaissance was saved. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

32 Conditions of Muslims after the War
Political conditions: Muslims were reduced to nothingness. For Hindus it was mainly a change of masters, readily accepted and reconciled with the change. Economic condition: financial bankruptcy and political decline became the fate of the Muslims. They were deprived of employment and opportunities. Educational condition: the English stopped Arabic and Persian education in schools to neglect Islamic education. The Muslims could not accept English education as they considered it un-Islamic. Christianity was preached in government schools. Social conditions: Muslims were socially rejected from all sides. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

33 Conditions of Muslims after the War
Muslims had ruled over India for about eight hundred years and during this period they protected the religious, traditional and cultural values of Hindus. Acting upon the doctrine of equality, the Muslim rulers never deprived Hindus of their rights. But now the same Hindus refused to give Muslims any status in society. These were the circumstances under which some Muslim leaders reminded the Muslims of their past glory and from that moment started the era of their renaissance. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

34 Chapter 3 Educational Movements
ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

35 Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Born at Delhi on 17 October 1817
Initially he advocated unity between the Hindus and the Muslims calling them “two eyes of a beautiful bride whose face would be disfigured if either one or the other was injured”. Later after witnessing a deep rift between both parties over choice of a national language, He realized its impossible for the two to remain a single nation. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

36 Muslim University of Aligarh
He led the struggle of national emancipation of Muslims by showing the positive side of the Muslims to the British. He started various education programs (Persian School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur, Society for the Educational Progress of Indian Muslims, Mohammadan Anglo- Oriental (MAO) College Aligarh (now known as Muslim University of Aligarh). Muslim University of Aligarh ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

37 Sir Syed Ahmad Khan He had different views about Islam (he condemned Jihad, refused to believe the Mairaj and was in open favor of ‘taking interest’). He was hated by the Maulvis who declared him as the most hateful of Kafirs and as a Dajjal. Contributed pamphlets (Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind/ The Causes of the Indian Revolt), magazines (Tahzib-ul-Ikhlaq) and wrote many books (The Loyal Mohammadans of India, Khutbate Ahmadiya/ Addresses on the Life of Mohammed) . He even set to write Tafseer-ul-Quran. He tried to harmonize the Muslim British relationship and took great steps to do so. He used his friendship with the British for the welfare of his co-religionists but his countrymen at large. He died on 27th March 1898 at the age of 81. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

38 Dar-ul-Uloom/ ‘House of Learning’, Deoband
Founded in Deoband in by Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanawtawi. In religion, it followed teachings of Hanafi school of theology and philosophy of Shah Waliullah. In politics, it was anti- British preaching disloyalty to the Government and aimed at closer relationships with Ottoman Turkey. It had a nine year syllabus that included Quran, Hadith, Fiqh, theology, Islamic History, medicine, calligraphy and training in a few handicrafts. Western learning was prohibited. Its students were in favor of Congress motives. Dar-ul-Uloom/ ‘House of Learning’, Deoband ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

39 Nadwa-tul-Ulema, Lucknow
Purpose was to serve a middle path between Deoband (old and traditional pattern) and Aligarh (modern knowledge). Envisioned by Shibli Nomani, Syed Mohammed Ali of Kanpur founded it in Scheme of studies included both the English and Islamic subjects of learning. It had a fine se of building, a valuable library and scholarship. Preachers were sent for missionary works throughout the country. Its students spread in the Subcontinent and worked for the creation of Pakistan. Nadwa-tul-Ulema, Lucknow ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

40 Anjum Himayat-e-Islam/ ‘Society for the Defense of Islam’, Lahore
British spread Christian Missionaries throughout the Province of Punjab started a drastic campaign agianst the Muslims and the Prophet (S.A.A.W.) This institution was founded on 22nd Septemebr 1884 to awake the Muslims of Punjab. Khalifa Hameeduddin was the first president of the Anjuman. It appointed Preachers, issued a monthly magazine, established educational institutions and orphanages. Famous personalities like Deputy Nazir Ahmad, Maulana Shibli Nomani, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Khawaja Altaf Husain Hali appeared at the annual sessions. Allama Mohammed Iqbal (poet-philosopher of Pakistan) made his national debut and recited his poem Nala-e-Yatim (Orphan’s Cry) which moved the audience and many even wept. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

41 Anjum Himayat-e-Islam/ ‘Society for the Defense of Islam’, Lahore
It also established Madrasah-tul-Muslaiman which published many books on Islam. Talim-ul-Islam (Madrasah) and Ishat-e-Islam College were also established. It also produced missionaries that could preach Islam within and outside Subcontinent. Fifteen institutions were established for primary classes for Muslim girls a college for Women. Many colleges were established for boys. It supported the movement of Pakistan and was its forerunner. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

42 Sindh Madrasah-tul-Islam, Karachi
Founded on 1st September 1885 by Aga Hasan Ali Afandi. It provided good education at low cost. Quaid-e-Azam also received his education from here. It was later named Sindh Muslim College (now known as SM College) on 21 June 1943. In 1947, it was the only Muslim institution in Sindh to meet the growing needs of the student influx from India. Sindh Madrasah-tul-Islam, Karachi ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

43 Islamia College, Peshawar
Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum prepared a scheme for education and in 1912 collected funds of 1½ million rupees was collected, 200 acres of land purchased and Islamia College was founded in in Peshawar. It played a vital role in creating a national spirit among Muslims. Quaid-e-Azam had great liking for this institution. According to the will of Quaid a sizable portion of his property was given to it. Islamia College, Peshawar ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

44 Reading Assignment The principle gods of Hindus are 3 including: __
There was a residential university at ____ where thousands of students received free education. Baba Guru Nanak was born in Talawandi, a village in _____ district. Rani Lakhsmi Bai of Jhansi led a force of _____ and massacred every European that fell into her hands. The great treachery and intrigue forced _____ to lay down his life at Seringapatam on 4 May, 1799. ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri

45 Reading Assignment Read for Case Study: Read for Quiz:
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan pg Read for Quiz: Chapter 3 Educational Movements Chapter 4 The Ideology of Pakistan ME 2306 Pakistan Studies Manahil Khatri


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